Preface xvii
Guided Tour Through a Chapter
xviii
Updates & Additions
xxii
Teaching and Learning Supplements
xxiv
Acknowledgments xxvii
CHAPTER
1
Homeostasis: A Framework
for Human Physiology
1
The Scope of Human Physiology
2
How Is the Body Organized?
2
Cells: The Basic Units of Living Organisms
2
Tissues 3
Organs and Organ Systems
4
Body Fluid Compartments
5
Homeostasis: A Defi ning Feature of Physiology
6
General Characteristics of Homeostatic
Control Systems
7
Feedback Systems
8
Resetting of Set Points
8
Feedforward Regulation
9
Components of Homeostatic Control Systems
9
Refl
exes
9
Local Homeostatic Responses
11
Intercellular Chemical Messengers
11
Processes Related to Homeostasis
13
Adaptation and Acclimatization
13
Biological Rhythms
13
Balance in the Homeostasis of Chemical Substances in the Body
14
TEST QUESTIONS
17
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
17
CHAPTER
2
Chemical Composition of the Body
18
Atoms 19
Atomic Number
19
Atomic Weight
19
Atomic Composition of the Body
20
Molecules 20
Covalent Chemical Bonds
20
Molecular Shape
20
Ions 20
Free Radicals
21
Polar Molecules
23
Hydrogen Bonds
23
Water 24
Solutions 24
Molecular Solubility
24
Concentration 25
Hydrogen Ions and Acidity
26
Classes of Organic Molecules
27
Carbohydrates 27
Lipids 29
Proteins 31
Nucleic Acids
35
ATP 38
TEST QUESTIONS
41
CHAPTER
3
Cellular Structure, Proteins,
and Metabolism
42
SECTION A
Cell Structure
Microscopic Observations of Cells
43
Membranes 45
Membrane Structure
46
Membrane Junctions
48
Cell Organelles
48
Nucleus 49
Ribosomes 50
Endoplasmic Reticulum
51
Golgi Apparatus
51
Endosomes 52
Mitochondria 52
Lysosomes 52
Peroxisomes 53
Vaults 53
Cytoskeleton 53
SECTION B
Proteins
Genetic Code
55
Protein Synthesis
57
Transcription: mRNA Synthesis
57
Translation: Polypeptide Synthesis
58
Regulation of Protein Synthesis
61
Mutation 62
Table of Contents
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