English and Metric Units
English
Metric
Length
1 foot = 0.305 meter
1 meter = 39.37 inches
1 inch = 2.54 centimeters
1 centimeter (cm) = 1/100 meter
1 millimeter (mm) = 1/1000 meter
1 micron (μm) = 1/1000 millimeter
1 nanometer (nm) = 1/1000 micron
*Mass
1 pound = 433.59 grams
1 kilogram (kg) = 1000 grams = 2.2 pounds
1 ounce = 28.3 grams
1 gram (g) = 0.035 ounce
1 milligram (mg) = 1/1000 gram
1 microgram (μg) = 1/1000 milligram
1 nanogram (ng) = 1/1000 microgram
1 picogram (pg) = 1/1000 nanogram
Volume
1 gallon = 3.785 liters
1 liter = 1000 cubic centimeters = 0.264 gallon
1 quart = 0.946 liter
1 liter = 1.057 quarts
1 pint = 0.473 liter
1 deciliter (dl) = 1/10 liter
1 fl
uid ounce = 0.030 liter
1 milliliter (ml) = 1/1000 liter
1 measuring cup = 0.237 liter
1 microliter (μl) = 1/1000 milliliter
*A pound is actually a unit of force, not mass. The correct unit of mass in the English system is the slug. When we write 1 kg = 2.2 pounds, this means that one kilogram of mass will have a weight under standard
conditions of gravity at the earth’s surface of 2.2 pounds of force.
Traditional units
SI units
Nutrients (fasting)
Glucose
70–110 mg/dL
4–6 mmol/L
FFA
72–240 mg/dL
0.3–1.0 mmol/L
Triglycerides
<160 mg/dL
<1.8 mmol/L
Proteins (major)
Albumin
3.5–5.5 g/dL
35–55 g/L
Globulins
2.0–3.5 g/dL
20–35 g/L
Fibrinogen
(clotting factor)
200–400 mg/dL
2–4 g/L
Other variables
Red blood cell count
4.1–5.4 x 10
6
/mm
3
4.1–5.4 x 10
12
/L
Hematocrit
Males
42–52%
0.42–0.52
Females
37–48%
0.37–0.48
Hemoglobin
Males
14–18 g/dL
140–180 g/L
Females
12–16 g/dL
120–160 g/L
Iron
50–150 μg/dL
9–27 μmol/L
Leukocytes
(total)
4.3–10.8 x 10
3
/mm
3
4.3–10.8 x 10
9
/L
Osmolarity
285–295 mosmol/L
285–295 mosmol/L
pH
7.38–7.45
7.38–7.45
Values are given in traditional units where appropriate, and in international system (SI) units adopted by much of the world.
SI unit values for fatty acids and triglycerides are estimates based on an average
molecular weight for each.
Certain hormones have traditionally been measured in “units of activity,” symbolized by the letter U (or sometimes “IU,” for “international units”).
All values are derived from a
composite of numerous sources (notably
Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine,
15th edition, and Greenspan, F. S. and Gardner, D. G.,
Basic and Clinical Endocrinology,
7th edition; both McGraw-Hill), and
are not meant to be regarded as absolutes.
Small variations in reference ranges occur due to several factors, including method of measurement.
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