770
Index
Ventilation
control of during exercise, 474–75
control by respiratory rate, tidal volume, and
hydrogen ion concentration, 470–74
lung mechanics, 446–57, 479–80
matching with blood fl
ow in alveoli, 461–62
Ventilation-perfusion abnormalities, 461–62,
476–77
Ventral horns, 177
Ventral respiratory group (VRG), 469–70
Ventral roots, 177
Ventricles, 361, 364t
Ventricular ejection, 374–75
Ventricular excitation, 368f
Ventricular fi brillation, 422
Ventricular fi lling, 375
Ventricular function curve, 379–80
Ventricular muscle, 381t
Ventricular relaxation, 368f
Venules, 361, 364t
Verbal memory, 249
Vertigo, 224
Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), 568–69
Vestibular apparatus, 222
Vestibular information, 223–24
Vestibular system, 222–27, 228
Vestibulocochlear nerves, 178t, 221
Vesicle transport, 395–96
Viagra, 610
Villi, 536
Virilization, of XX fetus, 641
Viruses, 647, 663–68
Visceral pleura, 445–46
Viscosity, 363
Visible spectrum, 209
Vision, and sensory system, 208–17, 228
Visual cortex, 200
Vital capacity (VC), 455
Vitamin(s), 74, 92, 539–40, 556–57
Vitamin A, 92
Vitamin B, 92, 427, 539–40
Vitamin C, 496
Vitamin D, 354–55
Vitamin E, 422
Vitamin K, 435, 556
Vitreous humor, 209
Vocal chords, 443
Voltage-gated ion channels, 100, 151–52
Voltmeter, 145
Voluntary control, of breathing, 476
Voluntary movement, 299
Vomiting, 559
Vomiting center, 559
Von Willebrand factor (vWF), 431
W
Waking state, of consciousness, 233–35
Walking, and body movement, 310–11, 312
Water
chemical properties of, 24
chemical reactions, 72, 73
digestion and absorption, 540
essential nutrients, 91
ltration and reabsorption in kidney, 495t
molecules, 20, 22f, 24
osmosis, 115–16
renal processes for sodium and, 501–506,
515–16
renal regulation, 510–11
total-body balance of sodium and, 500–501, 515
Water diuresis, 503
Water-fi lled channels, 396
Water-soluble messengers, 124, 126
Water-soluble vitamins, 92
Waveforms, 233
Wavelength, 208–209, 215
Weak acids, 26
Weight lifting, 277, 278, 417
Weight loss, 580, 589
Wernicke’s area, 247, 248f
White matter, 174, 175f
White muscle fi bers, 274
Whole-muscle contraction, 274–79, 282
“Wiggers” diagram, 376f
Withdrawal, and substance dependence, 244, 245t
Withdrawal refl ex, 303–304
Working memory, 246
X
Xanax,
170
X chromosome, 280, 602–603, 613
XX genotype, 641
XXY genotype, 613
Xylocaine,
154
Y
Y chromosome, 602–603
Z
Z line, 257
Zona pellucida, 617
Zonular fi bers, 209
Zygote, 628
Zymogens, 548
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