Index
769
Thrombopoietin, 430t
Thrombosis, 689
Thromboxanes, 131–32, 431, 437
Thrombus, 432, 689
Thymectomy, 280
Thymine, 36, 37f
Thymopoietin, 319t, 656
Thymus, 319t, 655, 656
Thyroglobulin, 337
Thyroid disease, 687–88
Thyroid gland, 687
Thyroid hormones
basal metabolic rate, 584–85
functions of, 319t
growth, 349
mechanisms of action, 323t, 325
structure and synthesis, 317, 337–41
Thyroid peroxidase, 337
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
anterior pituitary hormones, 331, 585
functions of, 319t
Graves’ disease, 686, 687
Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins
(TSIs), 686
Thyrotoxicosis, 340, 686
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), 318t,
334, 585, 687
Thyroxine (T
4
)
functions of, 319t, 338
Graves’ disease, 686, 687
synthesis of, 337, 338t
Tidal volume, 454, 456–57, 470–74
Tight junction, 48, 49f
Tip links, 221
Tissue(s).
See also
Tissue factor; Tissue injury
gas exchange between tissues and, 462, 480
organization of body, 2, 3–4
transport of hydrogen ions between lungs and,
468–69
Tissue factor, 435
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), 435
Tissue injury.
See also
Injury
arterioles, 390
infl
ammation and repair of, 654
Tisssue plasminogen activator (t-PA), 436
Titin, 257
T lymphocytes, 658
Tobacco, 186, 187
Tolerance, and substance dependence, 187, 245
Tolterodine, 499
Tonsils, 656
Total blood carbon dioxide, 468
Total body balance
of energy and temperature, 583–96
of sodium and water, 500–501, 515
Total energy expenditure, 584
Total peripheral resistance (TPR)
cardiac output, 406
defi
ned, 405
exercise, 418t
heart failure, 421
intracranial pressure, 412
Totipotent, 629
Touch, and sensory system, 203
Toxemia of pregnancy, 633
Toxins, and antibody-mediated immune
responses, 663–67
Trace elements, 19t, 20
Trace metal, 74
Trachea, 443
Tract, and nervous system, 173
Transamination, 89, 90f
Transcellular pathway, 114
Transcription
amount and activity of cell proteins, 63t
defi
ned, 56
plasma membrane receptors, 133
protein synthesis, 57–58, 61t
Transcription factors, 61–62, 124
Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation
(TENS), 206
Transducin, 214
Trans fatty acids, 29
Transferrin, 426
Transfer RNA (tRNA), 57, 59
Transfusion reactions, 672–73
Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), 424
Translation, 56, 58–61, 63t
Transmembrane potential, 150t
Transmembrane proteins, 47
Transmural pressure, 448–49
Transporters, 102, 103
Transport maximum, 496
Transpulmonary pressure, 448, 450f, 451
Transverse tubule, 262
Trauma.
See
Head trauma; Injury
Traveler’s diarrhea, 561
Tricarboxylic acid cycle, 79
Tricylic antidepressant drugs, 243
Tricuspid valve, 365
Trigeminal nerves, 178t
Trigger zone, of neuron, 138
Triglycerides, 30, 87, 569
Triiodothyronine (T
3)
, 319t, 337, 338, 686
Trochlear nerves, 178t
Trophoblast, 629, 672
Tropic hormone, 327
Tropomyosin, 257, 261, 267t
Troponin, 257, 261, 267t
Trypsin, 537, 552t
Trypsinogen, 552
Tryptophan, 57, 168
T-type calcium channels, 370
Tuberculosis, 344
Tubular reabsorption, 489, 491–92,
494–96, 497
Tubular secretion, 489, 491–92, 496, 497
Tubule, of kidney, 487
Tubulin, 54
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), 650t, 661–62, 677t
T wave, 371
Twins, 619
Twitch contractions, 268–69
Tympanic membrane, 218
Type I and type II alveolar cells, 444
Type I (T1DM) diabetes mellitus, 578–80, 675
Type II (T2DM) diabetes mellitus, 578–80
U
Ubiquitin, 63
Ulcer(s), 557–59
Ulcerative colitis, 560
Umami, 224
Umbilical arteries, 630
Umbilical cord, 630
Umbilical vein, 630
Unfused tetanus, 270
Unsaturated fatty acids, 29
Upper airways, 443
Upper esophageal sphincter, 544
Upper motor neuron disorders, 309
Up-regulation, of receptors, 122t, 123, 324
Upright posture, 310, 414–15
Uracil, 37f, 38
Urbach-Wiethe disease, 249
Urea, 90, 486, 495, 506
Uremia, 523, 524
Ureters, 487
Urge incontinence, 499
Uric acid, 486
Urinary system.
See also
Urine
autonomic nervous system, 184t
concentration of urine, 503–506
primary functions of, 4t
structure of, 487–89
Urine.
See also
Urinary system
concentration of, 503–506
protein in and kidney disease, 523
Uterus, 615, 623–24, 634–36, 642
Utricle, 222, 223, 224f
V
Vaccine, 666, 671
Vagina, 615
Vagus nerves, 178t
Valium,
170
Valsalva maneuver, 557
Van der Waals forces, 34
Vardenafi l, 610
Varicosities, 138, 288
Vasa recta, 489
Vascular system
arteries, 384–88, 403
arterioles, 388–92, 403
capillaries, 392, 394–99, 403–404
lymphatic system, 401–403, 404
overview of, 364t
veins, 399–401, 404
Vas deferens, 605, 607f
Vasectomy, 609
Vasoconstriction, 389, 392, 462
Vasodilation, 389, 416, 650–51
Vasodilator drugs, 421t
Vasopressin
arteriolar constriction, 391
baroreceptor control of secretion, 510–11
functions of, 319t, 331
stress, 343
water reabsorption, 503, 504
Vasovagal syncope, 414
Vault(s), 53
Vault RNA (vRNA), 53
Veins
autonomic nervous system, 184t
defi
ned, 364t
vascular system, 399–401, 404
Velocity
of capillary blood fl
ow, 394–95
of muscle shortening, 279
Venal hypertension, 419
Venous pressure, 399–401
Venous return, 380
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