768
Index
Spermatic cord, 605
Spermatids, 606
Spermatogenesis, 605, 606–608, 614
Spermatogonia, 606
Spermatozoa, 600
Sphincter muscles, 544
Sphincter of Oddi, 542t, 554
Sphygmomanometer, 387
Spinal cord, 177, 187, 207f
Spinal injuries, and neural regeneration, 143
Spinal nerve, 177
Spleen, 43f, 393t, 656
Spliceosome, 58
Splicing, of RNA, 63t
Split brain, 249
Spontaneous electrical activity, 287
SRY
gene, 603, 604f
Stabilization, of inhibitory chemical synapses, 162
Stable balance, 15
Stapedius, 219
Stapes, 218
Starch, 537
Starling forces, 398
Starvation, and metabolism, 587
Statins, 424
Steady state, 7
Steatorrhea, 559
Stem cell(s), 142, 143, 429
Stem cell factor, 430t
Stenosis, 377
Stereocilia, 221, 223
Steroid(s), 31
Steroid hormone(s), 319–23, 325
Steroid-hormone receptor superfamily, 124
Stethoscope, 387
Stimulation-produced analgesia, 206
Stimulus, 10, 192
Stimulus duration, 198
Stimulus intensity, 195
Stimulus location, 195–98
Stimulus type, 194
Stomach
autonomic nervous system, 184t
functions of, 530, 531t
gastrointestinal hormones, 542t
regulation of gastrointestinal processes,
545–51
“Stop” signals, 56–57
Strength training, 277, 278
Streptokinase, 437
Stress
blood pressure, 411
cancer, 670
depression, 243
diabetic symptoms, 580
endocrine system, 342–46
energy homeostasis in exercise and, 577–78, 582
food intake, 587
immune system, 670
infection, 670
metabolic rate, 584t
ulcers, 559
Stress incontinence, 499
Stretch refl ex, 302
Striated muscle, 255
Stroke, 186, 239, 419
Stroke volume (SV)
cardiac output, 378, 379
control of, 379
defi
ned, 375
exercise, 416, 418, 419f
heart failure, 420f
pulse pressure, 386
Strong acids, 26
Strychnine, 170
Subarachnoid space, 185
Subcortical nuclei, 174, 305–306
Subdural hematoma, 250
Submucosa, 535
Submucosal plexus, 535
Substance dependence, 244–45
Substance P, 171
Substantia nigra, 306
Substrate concentration, 75
Substrate-level phosphorylation, 79
Subthreshold potential, 153
Subthreshold stimuli, 153
Succinylcholine, 266
Sucrose, 28
Sulcus, 174, 175f
Sulfasalazine, 560
Sulfonylureas, 580
Summation
of graded potentials, 151
of muscle tension, 270
Superior vena cava, 361
Superoxide anion, 84
Supersensitivity, of receptors, 122t, 123
Supplementary motor cortex, 304
Suprachiasmatic nucleus, 215
Surface defenses, 648
Surface tension, 452
Surfactant, 452–53
Swallowing, 543–45
Swallowing center, 543
Sweat glands, 593
Sweating, 512, 593, 594
Swimming, 476
Sylvian fi ssure, 247, 248f
Sympathetic division, of autonomic nervous
system, 180, 181f, 182, 184t
Sympathetic nervous system
arterioles, 390–91
cardiac output, 378–79, 380, 381t
stress, 343
Sympathetic trunks, 180, 181f
Symport, 107
Synapses, 141, 172
Synaptic cleft, 160
Synaptic delay, 161
Synaptic integration, 162–64, 172
Synaptic potential, 150t, 156–57
Synaptic strength, 164–66, 172
Synaptic vesicles, 160
Synaptotagmins, 161
Synchronicity, of sound waves, 233
Syncope, 414
Synergistic muscles, 302
Syrup of ipecac, 559
Systemic arterial pressure, 387–88, 405–408
Systemic circulation, 361
Systemic infl ammatory response, 692–93
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 678
Systole and systolic pressure (SP), 373, 374f,
375, 386
Systolic dysfunction, 420
T
Tachycardia, 685
Tachypnea, 685
Tacrolimus, 560
Tadalafi l, 610
Tamoxifen, 640
Target cells, 11
Taste buds, 224
Taste receptors, 225
T cell(s), 658, 676t
T cell receptors, 660
Tectorial membrane, 221
Temperature
homeostasis, 7
rate of chemical reactions, 72
refl
ex, 10f
regulation of, 590–96
sensory system, 204
Template strand, 57
Temporal lobes, 174, 175f, 248f
Temporal summation, 163
Tendons, 256–57
Tension, muscle, 266, 275–77
Tension-monitoring systems, 303
Tensor tympani, 219
Teratogen, 632
Tertiary protein structure, 34–35
Testes, 318t, 600, 607f, 611
Testicular feminization, 603–604
Testosterone
adrenal cortex, 322, 323
erythropoietin, 428
growth and development, 349–50
major functions of, 318t
major sex hormones, 600
male reproductive functions, 611–12
Tetanus (disease), 297, 311
Tetanus (muscle contraction), 270
Tetanus toxin, 166
Tetrodotoxin, 154
Thalamus, 175f, 176, 207f, 298f
Theca, 617
Therapy.
See also
Drugs
for abdominal pain, fever, and circulatory
failure, 693–94
for chest pain after airplane fl
ight, 690
for palpitations and heat intolerance, 688
Thermal motion, 97
Thermodynamics, fi rst law of, 583
Thermoneutral zone, 593
Thermoreceptors, 193
Thermoregulatory system, 7
Theta rhythm, 234
Thiamine, 91
Thick fi laments, 257, 259f
Thin fi laments, 257
Third ventricle, 175f
Thirst, and salt appetite, 512, 516
Thoracic nerves, 179f
Thorax, 444–46, 450–51
Threshold potential, 150t, 152
Threshold stimuli, 153–54
“Thrifty genes,” 589
Thrombin, 433, 434f, 435, 436t
Thrombocytopenia, 678
Thrombolytic therapy, 437
Thrombomodulin, 435–36
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