Index
767
S
Saccades, 216
Saccule, 222, 223
Sacral nerves, 179f
Saiety signals, 587
Saliva, 530, 532t, 543
Salivary glands, 184t, 530, 531t
Salt appetite, 512, 516
Saltatory conduction, 155
Sarcomere, 257, 258
Sarcoplasmic reticulum, 261, 262–63, 286
Sarin, 167
Satellite cells, 256
Saturated fatty acids, 29, 581
Saturation
messenger-receptor interactions, 122
protein binding sites, 67–68
Scala tympani, 220
Scala vestibuli, 219–20
Schizophrenia, 242–43
Schwann cells, 139
Sciatic nerve, 179f
Sclera, 209
Scrotum, 605
Seasonal affective depressive disorder (SADD), 244
Secondary active transport, 104, 106–108
Secondary adrenal insuffi ciency, 344
Secondary hyperparathyroidism, 356
Secondary hypersecretion, 328
Secondary hyposecretion, 327
Secondary lymphoid organs, 655
Secondary oocyte, 616
Secondary peristalsis, 545
Secondary protein structure, 33–34
Secondary sexual characteristics, 600, 612
Secondary spermatocytes, 606
Second messengers, 126, 131, 134t
Secretin, 318t, 541–42, 552
Secretion
antibodies, 664–65
defi
ned, 529
of hormones, 326–27
of insulin, 573–74
of proteins, 63–65
Secretory phase, of menstrual cycle, 624
Secretory vesicles, 52
Segmentation, 555
Selective attention, 238–39
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs),
355, 640
“Self” antibodies, 678
Semen, 606
Semicircular canals, 222–23
Seminal vesicles, 605, 607f
Seminiferous tubules, 605
Semipermeable membrane, 110
Sensation, 192
Sensitization, and allergy, 674
Sensorimotor cortex, 298f, 304
Sensory information, 192
Sensory neglect, 239
Sensory pathway, 198
Sensory receptors, 139, 192–94, 202
Sensory system
association cortex and perceptual processing,
200–201, 202
chemical senses, 224–27, 228–29
defi
ned, 192
hearing, 217–22, 228
neural pathways, 198–200, 202
primary sensory coding, 194–98, 202
sensory receptors, 192–94, 202
somatic sensation, 203–207, 228
vestibular system, 222–27, 228
vision, 208–17, 228
Sensory transduction, 192
Sensory unit, 194
Sepsis, 693
Septa nuclei, 176f
Septal defect, 377
Septic shock, 675, 692, 693–94
Serosa, 535–36
Serotonin, 167t, 168
Serotonin reuptake blockers, 168
Serotonin-specifi c reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 243
Sertoli cell(s), 608, 609f
Sertoli cell barrier, 608
Serum, 425
Set point, 7, 8–9
Sex chromatin, 603
Sex chromosomes, 602
Sex determination, 602–603
Sex differentiation, 603–604
Sex hormones, 349–50, 600
Sexual behavior, 604
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), 638
Sexual response, 627, 642
Shaft, of bone, 346
Shear stress, 392
Shivering, 7, 592
Shivering thermogenesis, 592
Shock, 414
Shortening velocity, 277
Short-loop negative feedback, 336
Short refl exes, 541
Short-term memory, 246
Shunt, 462
Sickle-cell anemia, 35, 428
Sigmoidoscopy, 557
Signal sequence, 63–64
Signal transduction pathways, 123–35
Sildenafi l, 610
Single-fi ber contraction, 266–71, 281–82
Single-unit smooth muscle, 289
Sinoatrial (SA) node, 368, 369–71, 378–79, 381t
Sinus, 630
Sjögren’s syndrome, 543
Skeletal muscle
arterioles, 393t
characteristics of cells, 292t
energy metabolism, 272–74, 282
molecular mechanisms of contraction,
258–66, 281
single-fi
ber contraction, 266–71, 281–82
structure of, 255–58, 281
types of fi
bers, 274, 282
whole-muscle contraction, 274–79, 282
Skeletal muscle pump, 400–401
Skin
arterioles and sympathetic nerves, 390, 393t
autonomic nervous system, 184t
immune defenses, 648
temperature regulation, 593
Skin receptors, 203f
Sleep.
See also
Sleep apnea
consciousness, 234–35
metabolic rate, 584t
Sleep apnea, 235, 478, 479f
Sleep deprivation, 235
Sleep-wake cycles, 236
Sliding-fi lament mechanism, of muscle
contraction, 258–61
Slow fi bers, 274
Slowly adapting receptors, 198, 199f
Slow-oxidative fi bers, 274, 275f, 276t
Slow waves, 287
Small intestine, 531t, 532, 542t, 554–56
Smell, 226
Smoking, of tobacco
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 454
heart disease, 422
hypertension, 419
physiological effects of, 186, 187
pregnancy, 632
protective respiratory refl
exes, 476
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, 51
Smooth muscle
characteristics of cells, 292t
contraction, 285–90, 292–93, 389
defi
ned, 255
endothelial cells, 391–92
lymphatic vessels, 402
myogenic responses, 390
structure of, 284–85, 292
types of, 289–90
Smooth muscle tone, 287
SNAREs, 161, 166
Sneeze refl ex, 475–76
Sodium
active transport, 115
digestion and absorption, 540
ltration and reabsorption in kidney, 495t
homeostasis, 7, 15
ions, 20
NA
+
/K
+
-ATPase pump, 105, 106f, 107
renal processes for water and, 501–506, 515–16
renal regulation of, 506–10
resting membrane potential, 145–48
thirst and salt appetite, 512
total-body balance of water and, 500–501, 515
Solutes, 24
Solutions, 24–27, 111.
See also
Concentration
Solvent, 24
Soma, 138
Somatic motor neurons, 182
Somatic nervous system, 178, 180f
Somatic receptors, 200
Somatic sensation, 203–207, 228
Somatosensory cortex, 200, 206, 207f, 304
Somatosensory system, 206
Somatostatin (SS), 318t, 334, 348, 545
Somatotopic map, 304
Sound, and hearing, 217–21
Sound waves, 217, 233
Spasms, 309
Spasticity, 309
Spatial summation, 163
Specifi c ascending pathways, 199, 200f
Specifi c immune defenses, 646–47, 654–68,
679–80
Specifi city, of receptors, 121–22
Spectrum, and light, 208–209
Sperm, 600, 608f, 609–10, 614, 627
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