766
Index
Pulmonary edema, 421, 461
Pulmonary embolism, 476, 689, 690
Pulmonary function tests, 455
Pulmonary stretch receptors, 470
Pulmonary trunk, 361
Pulmonary valves, 366
Pulmonary veins, 361
Pulse pressure, 386, 416, 418t
Punishment, and behavior, 240
Pupil, 209
Purine, 36, 38f
Purkinje fi bers, 369
Pus, 692
P wave, 371
Pyloric sphincter, 549
Pyramidal cells, 174
Pyrimidal system, 308
Pyrimidal tracts, 308
Pyrimidine, 36, 38f
Pyruvate, 78, 79, 81, 86–87
Q
QRS complex, 371
Quaternary protein structure, 35
R
Radiation, of heat, 591, 593
Radioactive iodide, 688
Rapidly adapting receptors, 198, 199f
Rate, of chemical reaction, 72
Rate-limiting reaction, 77
Reabsorption, in kidney, 495–96, 501, 507
Reactant concentration, 72
Reactive hyperemia, 390
Reactive oxygen species, 84
Receptive fi eld, 194
Receptive relaxation, 548
Receptor(s).
See also
Neurotransmitters; Receptor
desensitization; Receptor potential; Receptor
tyrosine kinases
chemical messengers, 121–23, 134
endocytosis, 112–13
hormones, 324–25
lymphocytes, 658–60
neurons, 139, 141
refl
exes, 10
Receptor activation, 123
Receptor desensitization, 165
Receptor-mediated endocytosis, 112–13
Receptor potential, 150t, 156, 193–94
Receptor proteins, 121
Receptor tyrosine kinases, 126
Reciprocal innervation, 302
Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator
(rec-tPA), 437
Recruitment
of motor units in muscle, 276
of sensory receptors, 195
Rectum, 532
Recycling, of urea and hypertonic medullary
interstitium, 506
Red blood cells, 46f
Red muscle fi bers, 274
Referred pain, 205
Refl ex(es)
homeostatic control systems, 9–11
local afferent input and withdrawal, 303–304
salivary secretion, 543
temperature-regulatory, 591–93
ventilatory responses and protective, 476
voluntary and involuntary actions, 299
Refl ex arc, 10
Refraction, of light, 209
Refractory period, 154–55, 373
Regulation
body temperature, 590–96
enzyme-mediated reactions, 75–76, 78
gastrointestinal system, 540–57, 562–63
protein binding sites, 69–71
protein synthesis, 61–62
receptors, 123
renal of calcium and phosphate, 514
renal of potassium, 512–14
renal of sodium, 506–10
renal of water, 510–11
total-body energy balance, 583–90, 596
tubular reabsorption, 497
Regulatory salt appetite, 512
Regulatory site, 69
Relative refractory period, 155
Relaxation, of muscle fi ber, 258
Relaxed wakefulness and drowsiness, 236t
Relaxin, 318t, 634
REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, 234–35,
236t, 478
Renal clearance, 497–98
Renal corpuscle, 487, 490f
Renal cortex, 488
Renal hypertension, 524
Renal medulla, 488
Renal pelvis, 488
Renal physiology.
See also
Kidneys
micturition, 498–99
renal clearance, 497–98
renal functions, 486–87
renal processes for sodium and water, 501–506,
515–16
sodium regulation, 506–10
structure of kidneys and urinary system,
487–89
water regulation, 510–11, 516
Renal plasma fl ow, 498
Renin, 508
Renin-angiotensin system, 507–509
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
(rTMS), 250
Repolarizing, of membrane
potential, 149
Reproductive system
autonomic nervous system, 184t
female reproductive physiology, 614–42
male reproductive physiology, 605–14
primary functions of, 4t
sex determination and differentiation, 600–605
Resetting, of set points, 8–9
Residual volume (RV), 455
Resistance
to antibiotics, 672
blood fl
ow and pressure, 362–63, 364
electrical, 144
Respiration, control of, 469–78, 480–81
Respiratory acidosis, 468, 521
Respiratory alkalosis, 468, 521, 690
Respiratory bronchioles, 444
Respiratory cycle, 443, 450f
Respiratory distress syndrome of the
newborn, 453
Respiratory pump, 400–401
Respiratory quotient (RQ), 457
Respiratory rate, 470–74
Respiratory rhythm generator, 469
Respiratory system.
See also
Lung(s)
control of respiration, 469–78, 480–81
gas exchange, 457–62, 480
homeostatic role, 518
hypoxic hypoxia, 476, 481
nonrespiratory functions of lungs, 478, 481
organization of, 443–46, 479
pregnancy, 633t
primary functions of, 4t
transport of carbon dioxide in blood,
467–68, 480
transport of hydrogen ions between tissues and
lungs, 468–69, 480
transport of oxygen in blood, 463–67, 480
ventilation and lung mechanics, 446–57,
479–80
Respiratory zone, 444
Rest-or-digest state, 183
Resting membrane potential, 144–49, 150t
Restrictive lung diseases, 455–56
Retching, 559
Rete testis, 605
Reticular activating system (RAS), 236
Reticular formation, 177
Reticulocyte, 426
Retina, 209, 210, 212f, 215
Retinal, 213
Retrograde amnesia, 246
Retrograde movement, and axonal transport, 139
Retroviruses, 671
Reversible reaction, 72–73
Reversing, of metabolic pathways, 77
Rewards, and behavior, 240, 241
Rheumatic arthritis, 675
Rh factor, 673
Rhodopsin, 213
Rhythmicity, of sound waves, 233
Rhythm method, of contraception, 639
Ribonuclease, 552t
Ribonucleic acid.
See
RNA
Ribose, 37f, 38
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 57, 59
Ribosomes, 50–51, 59, 60f, 65
Rickets, 355
Right hemisphere, 249
Right and left bundle branches, 369
Rigidity, 309
Rigor mortis, 261
Ritalin,
239
RNA (ribonucleic acid).
See also
Genetics
compared to DNA, 38
defi
ned, 35–36
genetic code and classes of, 57
molecular structure, 37f
vaults, 53
RNA polymerase, 57, 58
Rods, 213
Rough endoplasmic reticulum, 51
Round window, 220
Ruffi ni corpuscle, 203f
RU 486, 638–39
Rynodine receptor, 262–63
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