Index
765
Physiology.
See also
Pathophysiology
compartmentalization as general
principle, 5
defi
ned, 2
female reproductive, 615–42
homeostasis as defi
ning feature, 6–7
male reproductive, 605–14
renal, 487–516
Pia mater, 185
Pigment epithelium, 213
Pineal gland, 14
Pituitary gland
anatomy of brain, 175f
control systems involving, 330–36
hormones produced by, 319t
hypothalamus, 176
pregnancy, 633f
Pituitary tumor, 345, 351
Placebo, 206
Placenta, 319t, 630, 633t
Plasma
angiotensin II concentration, 508
bicarbonate concentration, 518–20
cortisol, 343
defi
ned, 5, 360, 364t, 425
hormone secretion, 326
hormone transport, 323
liver functions, 533t
Plasma cells, 647, 649t, 676t
Plasma membrane, 45
Plasma membrane receptors, 121, 125f, 133
Plasma osmolarity, 512
Plasmapheresis, 280
Plasmin, 436
Plasminogen, 436
Plasminogen activators, 436
Plasticity, 247
Platelet(s), 360, 429
Platelet aggregation, 431
Platelet activating factor, 651t
Platelet activation, 431
Platelet factor (PF), 433
Platelet plug, 431–32
Pleura, 445
Pleural sac, 445
Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells, 429
Pneumotaxic center, 470
Pneumothorax, 449
Podocytes, 487, 490f
Point mutation, 62–63
Polar covalent bonds, 23
Polar molecules, 23–24, 99
Poliomyelitis, 280
Polymers, 27
Polycythemia, 428
Polymodal neurons, 200
Polymorphonuclear granulocytes, 429, 647
Polypeptide(s), 31, 33, 58–61, 101f
Polypeptide synthesis, 58–61
Polysaccharides, 28, 536t
Polyspermy, 628
Polysynaptic refl ex, 302
Polyunsaturated fatty acid, 29, 581
Pons, 174, 175f
Pontine respiratory group, 470
Pool, and homeostasis, 14
Portal system, 362
Postabsorptive state
endocrine and neural control of, 571–77
exercise, 578
metabolic pathways, 567, 568f, 569–70, 582
Posterior pituitary gland, 319t, 330–31
Postganglionic neurons, 180
Positive balance, 15
Positive feedback, 8, 152.
See also
Feedback
systems
Positive nitrogen balance, 90
Posterior pituitary, 633t
Postsynaptic cell, 161–62, 172
Postsynaptic density, 160
Postsynaptic mechanisms, 165
Postsynaptic neuron, 141
Postural refl exes, 310
Posture
balance and maintenance of upright, 310, 312
cardiovascular patterns, 414–15, 424
somatic sensation, 203–204
Potassium
NA
+
/K
+
-ATPase pump, 105, 106f
renal regulation, 512–14, 516
resting membrane potential, 145–48
Potassium-sparing diuretics, 523
Potential difference, 144
Potentiation, 541
Potocytosis, 114
Power stroke, 260
Preattentive processing, 238
Pre-Bötzinger Complex, 469
Precapillary sphincter, 394
Precocious puberty, 641
Prednisone, 325
Preeclampsia, 633
Preganglionic neurons, 180
Pregnancy
female reproductive system, 627–39, 642
gastrointestinal system, 545
metabolic rate, 584t
Rh factor, 673
Pregnancy sickness, 634
Preinitiation complex, 62
Preload, and stroke volume, 379
Premature ejaculation, 610
Premenstrual disorder (PMDD), 625–26
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), 625–26
Premenstrual tension, 625–26
Premotor area, 304
Presbyopia, 210
Pressure, and sensory system, 203.
See also
Blood
pressure; Venous pressure
Pressure natriuresis, 510
Presynaptic facilitation, 164
Presynaptic inhibition, 164
Presynaptic neuron, 141
Primary active sodium reabsorption, 501
Primary active transport, 104–106, 108t
Primary adrenal insuffi ciency, 344
Primary aldosteronism, 515
Primary hyperparathyroidism, 355
Primary hypersecretion, 328
Primary hypertension, 419
Primary hypoparathyroidism, 356
Primary hyposecretion, 327
Primary lymphoid organs, 655
Primary motivated behavior, 240
Primary motor cortex, 304
Primary oocytes, 615–16
Primary protein structure, 33
Primary response genes (PRGs), 133
Primary RNA transcript, 58
Primary sensory coding, 194–98, 202
Primary spermatocytes, 606
Primordial follicles, 617
Procaine, 154
Procedural memory, 236, 249
Processes, and neurons, 138
Procoagulants, 436t
Progesterone
classifi
cation of sex hormones, 600
corpus luteum, 622
feedback effects, 621t
major functions of, 318t, 319t, 323, 625–26
uterine changes in menstrual cycle, 624
Prognathism, 350
Prohormones, 319
Prokaryotic cells, 45
Prolactin, 319t, 332, 637
Prolactin-releasing factor (PRF), 637
Prolapse, of AV valves, 365
Proliferative phase, of menstrual cycle, 624
Promoter, 57–58
Proprioception, 224, 298
Proptosis, 684
Propylthiouracil, 688
Prostacyclin (PGI), 391–92, 432
Prostaglandins, 131–32, 636
Prostate cancer, 612
Prostate gland, 605
Proteases, 89
Proteasome, 63
Protective refl exes, 475–76
Protein(s).
See also
Amino acids; Protein channels;
Protein hormones
binding sites, 66–71
characteristics of, 27t, 31–35
degradation, 63, 65
digestion and absorption, 537
genetic code and synthesis of, 57–63, 65
metabolism, 89, 93, 567–83
ribosomes, 50–51
secretion, 63–65
in urine and kidney disease, 523
vasodilation and increased permeability to,
650–51
Protein assembly, 59–61
Protein C, 436
Protein channels, 100, 108t
Protein hormones, 319
Protein kinase, 70, 126, 134
Protein kinase C, 130
Protein synthesis, 57–63, 65
Proteolysis, 89
Prothrombin, 433
Protons, 19
Proximal tubule, 487, 497, 515t
Pseudohypoparathyroidism, 356
Psilocybin, 244f
Psychoactive substances, 244
Psychological dependence, 244
PTH-related peptide (PTHrp), 355
Puberty
defi
ned, 612
female reproductive system, 626–27, 642
hormonal changes during, 612, 614, 642
precocious, 641
Puffer fi sh, 154
Pulmonary arteries, 361
Pulmonary circulation, 361, 377
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