764
Index
Nutrients and nutrition—
continued
hormone secretion, 326
pregnancy, 633t
Nystagmus, 223
O
Obesity
causes and treatment of, 588–89
deep vein thrombosis, 690
defi
ned, 588
diabetes mellitus, 579–80
hypertension, 419
sleep apnea, 478
Obligatory water loss, 503
Obstructive lung diseases, 455
Obstructive sleep apnea, 478
Occipital lobes, 174, 175f, 248f
Oculomotor nerves, 178f
Odorant, 226
“OFF-pathways,” 214
Ohm’s law, 144
Olfaction, 226
Olfactory bulbs, 176f, 226–27
Olfactory cortex, 200
Olfactory epithelium, 226
Oligodendrocytes, 138–39
Omeprazole, 558
Oncogenes, 662
1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 318t, 354–55
One-way fl uxes, 97, 98f
“ON-pathways,” 214
Oogenesis, 615–17
Oogonia, 615
Ophthalmoscope, 209
Opponent color cells, 216
Opsins, 213
Opsonins, 652, 654, 677t
Optic(s), of vision, 209–12
Optic chiasm, 215
Optic disc, 209
Optic nerves, 178t, 209
Optic tracts, 215
Optimal length (L
0
), 271
Oral anticoagulants, 437
Oral contraceptives, 638
Organ(s).
See
Body;
specifi
c organs and systems
cell differentiation, 2
organization of body, 4
Organ of Corti, 220–21
Organic molecules, 27–35
Organophosphates, 266
Organ transplantation, 525
Orgasm, 610, 627
Orienting response, 238
Osmol, 109
Osmolarity, 109, 111
Osmoreceptors, 511
Osmosis, 108–12, 116–17
Osmotic diuretic, 503
Osmotic pressure, 110
Osteoblasts, 346, 352
Osteoclasts, 352–53
Osteocytes, 352
Osteoid, 352
Osteomalacia, 355
Osteoporosis, 345, 355, 640
Otoliths, 223, 224f
Outer segment, 212
Oval window, 218–19
Ova (ovum), 600
Ovarian functions, 615–23, 641–42
Ovaries, 318t, 600
Overshoot, and membrane potential, 149
Overweight, defi
nition of, 588–89
Ovulation, 615, 621–22
Oxidative deamination, 89, 90f
Oxidative fi bers, 274
Oxidative phosphorylation, 82–84, 85t, 272
Oxybutin, 499
Oxygen
blood and transport of, 463–67, 480
gas exchange in respiratory system, 458,
459f, 460
respiratory rate, 474
ventilation-perfusion abnormalities, 476–77
Oxygen-carrying capacity, 463
Oxygen debt, 273
Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve, 463–64
Oxyhemoglobin, 463
Oxytocin
feedback systems, 8
functions of, 319t, 331
parturition, 8, 634, 636
posterior pituitary hormones, 331
P
Pacemaker, 14
Pacemaker potential
action potentials and SA node, 370
cardiac muscle cells, 291, 370
defi
ned, 150t, 157, 287
smooth muscle fi
bers, 288f
Pacinian corpuscles, 203f
Pain, and sensory system, 204–206
Palpitations, 684–88, 694
Pancreas
arterioles, 393t
autonomic nervous system, 184t
digestive enzyme secretion, 551–53
functions, 531t, 532
hormones, 318t, 542t
Papillary muscles, 365
Paracellular pathway, 114
Paracrine agents, 11–12, 392
Paradoxical sleep, 234
Parasympathetic division, of autonomic nervous
system, 180, 181f, 182, 184t
Parasympatheic nervous system, 378–79, 381t, 391
Parathyroid glands, 318t, 353, 633t
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), 318t, 353–55, 514
Parietal cells, 545
Parietal lobe(s), 174, 175f, 248f
Parietal-lobe association cortex, 304
Parietal pleura, 446
Parkinson’s disease, 143, 305–306, 307
Paroxetine, 168
Partial pressures, of gases, 457–59
Parturition, 8, 634–36
Passive immunity, 666
Pathophysiology, 2.
See also
Disease; Medical
pathophysiology
defi
ned, 683
of gastrointestinal system, 557–61, 563
Pathway, and central nervous system, 173
Pavlov response, 543
Paxil,
168
Penicillin, 672
Penis, 609–10
Pentoses, 28
Pepsin, 530, 548, 549t
Pepsinogen, 545, 548, 549t
Peptide, 33
Peptide bond, 31, 33
Peptide hormones, 319, 323t, 325
Peptidergic neurotransmitters, 170
Percent hemoglobin saturation, 463
Perception, 192, 200–201, 239
Perforation, 691
Perforin, 668, 677t
Pericardium, 365
Perimenopause, 639
Peripheral chemoreceptors
acclimatization to altitude, 477t
control of ventilation and hydrogen ion
concentration, 470, 471, 472, 473
Peripheral membrane proteins, 47
Peripheral nervous system, 138, 177–80, 187.
See
also
Neurons
Peripheral thermoreceptors, 591
Peripheral veins, 399
Peristaltic waves, 544–45, 549, 550f
Peritoneal dialysis, 525
Peritonitis, 692
Peritubular capillaries, 488–89
Permeability coeffi cient
P,
99
Permissive actions, of thyroid hormones, 339
Permissiveness, and hormone receptors, 324
Pernicious anemia, 427, 540
Peroxisomes, 53
Persistent vegetative state, 237
Pesticides, 266
Peyer’s patches, 536
pH, 26, 27
Phagocytes, 648, 651–52
Phagocytosis, 112, 113f, 648, 665
Phagolysosome, 652
Phagosomes, 112, 652
Phantom limb, 201, 206
Pharmacological effects.
See also
Drugs
of cortisol, 343
of hormones, 325
Pharynx
chewing and swallowing, 543, 544f
functions of gastrointestinal organs, 530, 531t
organization of respiratory system, 443
Phase-shift rhythms, 14
Phenotype, 603
Phenyl-N-methyltransferase (PNMT), 317
Phlebotomy, 540
Phosphate, renal reguation of, 514, 516
Phosphodiesterase, 128, 214
Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, 610
Phosphoenolpyruvate, 86
Phospholipase A
2
, 132
Phospholipase C, 130
Phospholipids, 30–31, 46–47, 537
Phosphoprotein phosphatases, 70–71
Phosphorylation, 70, 105, 286
Photopigments, 213
Photoreceptors, 193, 209, 212–14
Phototherapy, 244
Phototransduction, 212–14
Phrenic nerves, 450
Physical dependence, 244
Physical examination, 684–85, 688, 691
Physiological genomics, 2
Physiologic dead space, 457
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