Index
763
Motor end plate, 264
Motor neuron(s)
body movement, 299–304, 312
peripheral nervous system, 180
skeletal muscle contraction, 264, 276–77
Motor neuron pool, 297
Motor program, 297, 298
Motor proteins, 139
Motor units, 264, 275–76, 297
Mountain sickness, 477
Mouth, 530, 531t, 543
Movement, sense of, 203–204.
See also
Body
movement; Eye movement; Mass movement
Mucosa, 535
Mucus, and immune defenses, 648
Müllerian ducts, 603
Müllerian-inhibiting substance (MIS),
318t, 603
Multienzyme reactions, 76–77, 78
Multimeric proteins, 35
Multiple sclerosis, 155, 158, 675
Multiunit smooth muscle, 289–90
Muscarinic receptors, 167
Muscle.
See also
Muscle spindle; Muscle stretch;
Muscle tone; Musculoskeletal system
cardiac muscle, 290–91
defi
ned, 256
metabolic rate and activity of, 584t, 585
skeletal muscle, 255–83
smooth muscle, 284–90
Muscle cells, 2, 3
Muscle cramps, 280
Muscle fatigue, 273–74
Muscle fi ber, 256
Muscle spindle, 300
Muscle-spindle stretch receptors, 300
Muscle stretch, 301f
Muscle tissue, 3
Muscle tone, 309–10, 312
Muscular dystrophy, 280
Muscularis externa, 535
Musculoskeletal system, 4t, 62
Mutation, 35, 62–63
Myasthenia gravis, 280, 675, 686–87
Myelin, 138, 139f, 155
Myenteric plexus, 535
Myoblasts, 256
Myocardial infarction, 422, 688
Myocardium, 365
Myoepithelial cells, 636
Myofi brils, 256f, 257, 258f
Myogenic responses, 390
Myoglobin, 33f, 274
Myometrium, 624
Myopia, 210
Myosin
skeletal muscle contraction, 259, 260
structure of skeletal muscle, 257
structure of smooth muscle, 284
Myosin light-chain kinase, 285
Myosin light-chain phosphatase, 286
Myxedema, 340
N
NAD
+
(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), 74,
79, 81
NADH
+
, 79
NA
+
/K
+
-ATPase(s), 339, 513
NA
+
/K
+
-ATPase pump
action potential, 153
primary active transport, 105, 106f, 107
resting membrane potential, 148, 149f
Nanomoles, 26
National Institutes of Health, 588
National Research Council, 590t
Natural antibodies, 677t
Natural killer cells.
See
NK cells
Natural selection, 63
Nearsightedness, 210, 211f
Necrosis, 691
Negative balance, 15
Negative feedback, 8, 10f, 152.
See also
Feedback
systems
Negative nitrogen balance, 90
Neostygmine, 280
Nephritis, 678
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, 503
Nephrons, 487–88
Nernst equation, 146–47
Nerve(s), 140, 173, 287–89.
See also
Neurons
Nerve cells, 2, 3
Nerve fi ber, 138
Nerve tissue, 3
Nervous system.
See also
Autonomic nervous
system; Central nervous system; Enteric
nervous system; Neural mechanisms and
control; Peripheral nervous system
primary functions of, 4t
structure of, 173–88
Net fi ltration pressure (NFP), 397
Net fl ux, 97, 98f, 99, 108t
Net glomerular fi ltration pressure, 493
Neural growth and regeneration, 142–43
Neural mechanisms and control.
See also
Neural
pathways; Neurons
of absorptive and postabsorptive state, 571–77, 582
of conscious experiences, 239–40
hypophysiotropic hormones, 334
regulation of gastrointestinal system, 541
rhythmical breathing, 469–70
for selective attention, 238–39
Neural pathways
hearing, 222
sensory systems, 198–200, 202
somatosensory system, 206
vision, 214–15
Neural substrates, of consciousness, 235–37
Neural tissue, 138–43
Neuroeffector communication, 171, 172
Neuromodulators, 166–70, 172
Neuromuscular junction, 264–66
Neuromuscular signaling, 266
Neurons.
See also
Motor neurons; Neural
mechanisms and control
conscious experiences, 239
functional classes of, 139–41, 143
hormone secretion, 326–27
neural growth and regeneration, 142–43
structure and maintenance of, 138–39, 143
Neuropeptide(s), 167t, 170–71
Neuropeptide Y, 586
Neurotransmitters.
See also
Receptor(s)
amino acids, 169–70, 172
defi
ned, 11, 12f
hair cells, 221, 223
mechanisms of release, 160–61, 172
nervous system, 138
neuromodulators, 166–69, 172
smooth muscle contraction, 288
Neurotrophic factors, 142
Neutralization, of bacterial toxins and viruses, 666
Neutral solution, 26
Neutrons, 19
Neutrophils, 429, 649t, 676t
Nicotine, 186, 245t
Nicotinic receptors, 167
Nitric oxide (NO)
active hyperemia, 389
erection of penis, 610
hemoglobin and transport of, 468
hemostasis and platelet plug, 432
as neurotransmitter, 171
phagocytes and immune response, 652
smooth muscle contraction, 289
Nitroglycerin, 423
NK (natural killer) cells
defi
ned, 676t
functions of, 649t, 658
specifi
c immune responses, 662
virus-infected and cancer cells, 668, 669t
NMDA receptors, 169–70
Nociceptors, 193, 204
Nodes of Ranvier, 139
Noise levels, and ear damage, 221
Nonadrenergic autonomic neurons, 391
Noncholinergic autonomic neurons, 391
Nonpenetrating solutes, 110
Nonpolar molecules, 23, 99
“Nonsequence” hormones, 336
Nonshivering thermogenesis, 592
Nonspecifi c ascending pathways, 200
Nonspecifi c immune defenses
bacterial infections, 666
defenses at body surfaces, 648, 679
defi
ned, 646
infl
ammation, 648, 650–54, 679
interferons, 654, 679
Nonsteroidal anti-infl ammatory drugs (NSAIDs),
132f, 133
Nontropical sprue, 539
Nonverbal memory, 249
Nonvolatile acids, 517
Noradrenergic fi bers, 168
Norepinephrine
heart rate, 379
as hormone, 12, 317, 318t
locus ceruleus and selective attention, 239
as neurotransmitter, 12, 167
production and functions of, 318t
Novocaine,
154
NREM (nonrapid eye movement) sleep,
234–35, 236t
Nuclear bag fi bers, 300
Nuclear chain fi bers, 300
Nuclear envelope, 50
Nuclear pores, 50
Nucleic acids, 27t, 33–34
Nucleolus, 50
Nucleosomes, 55
Nucleotides, 36, 37f
Nucleus, 45, 49–50, 174
Nutrients and nutrition.
See also
Diet; Digestion;
Fasting; Food; Malnutrition
essential, 91–92, 93
growth, 347
heart attacks, 422
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