762
Index
Lung capacities, 454–56
Lung compliance, 452–53
Lung volumes, 454–56
Luteal phase, 619, 622–23
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
anterior pituitary, 331, 332, 600
control of testes, 611
follicle development, 620–21
functions of, 319t
luteal phase of menstrual cycle, 623
pregnancy, 633
Lymph, 401, 568, 656
Lymphatic capillaries, 401
Lymphatic system, 4t, 401–403, 404
Lymphatic vessels, 401
Lymph fl ow, 401–402
Lymph nodes, 401, 656
Lymphocyte(s)
defi
ned, 429, 676t
origins of, 657–58
role of in immune response, 648, 649t
specifi
c immune defenses, 654–55
Lymphocyte activation, 655, 663–64
Lymphoid organs, 655–57
Lysosomes, 52–53, 64f
M
Macromolecules, 27
Macrophage(s)
bacteria, 652t
defi
ned, 647
endocrine system, 318t
functions of, 649t
role in immune responses, 670t, 676t
viral infections, 667–68
Macrophage-like cells, 647, 649t, 676t
Macula densa, 488f, 489, 508, 509
Magnitude, of diffusion, 97–99
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC), 660
Malabsorption, of vitamins, 539
Malaria, 428
Male climacteric, 613
Male pattern baldness, 612
Male reproductive physiology, 605–14
Malleus, 218
Malnutrition, 347, 670.
See also
Nutrition
Maltose, 28
Mammary glands, 636
Mania, 243
Margination, 651
Marijuana, 245t
Masculinization, 322
Mass action, law of, 73
Mass movement, 557
Mast cells, 648, 649t, 676t
Matrix, 52, 53f
Maximal oxygen consumption, and endurance
training, 417–19
Mean arterial pressure (MAP)
arterioles, 389
baroreceptor refl
exes, 409f
defi
ned, 386–87
elevated intracranial pressure, 412
equation for, 406
exercise, 418t
Measurement
of cardiac function, 382, 383
of systemic arterial pressure, 387–88
Mechanically-gated channels, 100, 151
Mechanoreceptors, 193
Mediastinum, 449
Mediated-transport systems, 102–108, 116, 396,
495–96
Medical physiology.
See also
Pathophysiology
abdominal pain, fever, and circulatory failure,
691–94, 695
chest pain after airplane fl
ight, 688–90, 694
palpitations and heat intolerance, 684–88, 694
Medications.
See
Drugs; Pharmacological effects
Medulla oblongata, 174, 175f
Medullary cardiovascular center, 409
Medullary circulation, 505–506
Medullary collecting duct, 487, 503, 505, 506, 515t
Medullary respiratory center, 469
Megakaryocytes, 429
Meiosis, 601–602
Meiotic arrest, 616
Meissner’s corpuscle, 203f
Melatonin, 14, 236–37
Membrane(s).
See also
Basement membrane; Basilar
membrane; Basolateral membrane; Excitable
membrane; Glomerular membrane; Plasma
membrane; Semipermeable membrane; Tectorial
membrane; Tympanic membrane
diffusion through, 99–102
structure of cell, 45–48, 54
Membrane activation, 287–89
Membrane attack complex (MAC), 653, 665, 677t
Membrane excitation, 264–66
Membrane junctions, 48, 49f
Membrane potential, 100, 144–59
Memory, 245–47, 249, 251
Memory cells, 655, 676t
Memory encoding, 245
Menarche, 627
Ménière’s disease, 227
Meninges, 185
Meningitis, 185
Menopause, 355, 639–40, 642
Menstrual cycle, 615, 619–20, 623–24, 625t,
642.
See also
Menstruation
Menstrual phase, 624
Menstruation.
See also
Menstrual cycle
description of, 615
exercise and amenorrhea, 578, 640
metabolic rate, 584t
Menthol, 204
Merkle’s corpuscle, 203f
Mesangial cells, 487
Mescaline, 244f
Mesolimbic dopamine pathway, 230
Messenger RNA (mRNA), 57–58, 60
Metabolic acidosis, 473, 521–22
Metabolic alkalosis, 473, 521–22
Metabolic bone diseases, 355
Metabolic pathways, 76, 78–94
Metabolic rate, 584–85
Metabolism
capillaries, 396–97
carbohydrate, 85–87, 93
control and integration of carbohydrate, protein,
and fat, 567–83
cortisol and stress, 342
defi
ned, 71
fat, 87–91, 93
hormones, 324, 328, 339
hyperventilation, 460
kidney tubules, 496
liver functions, 533t
pregnancy, 633t
protein and amino acid, 89–90, 93
skeletal muscle, 272–74, 282
Metabotropic receptors, 161
Metarterioles, 394
Methamphetamine, 244f
Methane, 22f
Methimazole, 688
Methionine, 91
Methylphenidate, 239
MHC proteins, 660
Micelles, 538
Microbes, 646
Microcirculation, 361, 395f
Microfi laments, 53–54
Microglia, 142
Micromoles, 26
Microscope, and observations of cells, 43–45
Microtubules, 54
Microvilli, 536
Micturition, 498–99
Midbrain, 174, 175f
Middle ear, 218
Mifepristone, 638–39
Migrating myoelectric compex (MMC), 555–56
Milk, and lactose intolerance, 560
Milk ejection refl ex, 637
Millimoles, 26
“Mind-body” interactions, 670
Mineral elements, 19t, 20, 91–92, 540
Mineralization, 353
Mineralocorticoid, 321
Minute ventilation, 456
Miscarriage, 632
Mitochondria, 51f, 52, 53f, 61
Mitochondrial DNA, 61
Mitogen, 347
Mitosis, 601
Mitral valve, 365
M line, 257
Modality, 194
Modulation, and neurotransmitters, 166
Modulator molecule, 69
Mole, 26
Molecular shape, 20
Molecular solubility, 24–25
Molecular weight, 26
Molecules, 20
Monoamine oxidase (MAO), 168
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, 243
Monocytes, 429, 649t, 676t
Monoglycerides, 538
Monoiodotyrosine (MIT), 337
Monosaccharides, 28, 536t, 537
Monosodium glutamate (MSG), 224
Monosynaptic refl ex, 302
Monounsaturated fatty acid, 29, 581
Mood disorders, 243–44
Morphine, 170, 186
Motilin, 318t, 556
Motility, of gastrointestinal system, 529, 555, 557
Motion sickness, 224
Motivation, 240–41, 250–51
Motor axons, 265f
Motor cortex, 304
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