Index
761
Iodine, 337, 340, 341
Ion(s), 20–21, 146, 326.
See also
Hydrogen ions
Ion channels, 100, 101f, 130–31, 151–52
Ionic bond, 24, 36t
Ionotropic receptors, 161
Ipecac, 559
Ipsilateral leg, 303
Iris, 209, 211
Iron
composition of blood, 426, 427f
digestion and absorption, 540
set points and plasma concentration, 8
Iron-defi ciency anemia, 428t
Irreversible reactions, 73
Ischemia, 422, 693
Ischemic hypoxia, 476
Islets of Langerhans, 571–72, 574
Isometric contraction, 266–68, 269
Isometric tension, 270, 271, 285
Isoosmotic solutions, 111, 112t, 503
Isotonic contraction, 267, 269
Isotonic solutions, 111, 112t
Isotopes, 20
Isovolumetric ventricular contraction, 374, 375
J
JAK kinases, 126–27
Japan, and puffer fi sh, 154
Jaundice, 559
Jejunum, 532
Jet lag, 237
J receptors, 476
Junctional feet, 262
Juxtacrine, 12
Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA), 489, 491f
Juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, 489
Juxtamedullary nephrons, 488f, 489
K
Kallikrein, 389
Kaposi’s sarcoma, 671
Karyotype, 603
Keto acid, 89.
See also
Alpha-ketoacids
Ketones, 570, 579
Kidney(s).
See also
Renal physiology
arterioles, 393t
autonomic nervous system, 184t
calcium homeostasis, 353
diuretics, 523
division of labor in, 514, 515t
functions of, 486t
gluconeogenesis, 86
homeostatic controls, 518, 522
hormones, 318t
hydrogen ion regulation, 517–22
potassium regulation, 512–14, 516
pregnancy, 633t
regulation of calcium and phosphate, 514, 516
regulation of ion and water balance,
500–16
regulation of sodium, 506–10, 516
section of human, 491f
sodium balance, 15
structure of, 487–89
thirst and salt appetite, 512, 516
Kidney disease, 523–25
Kidney transplantation, 525
Kilocalorie (kcal), 72, 584
Kinesins, 139, 140f
Kinesthesia, 204
Kinin(s), 651t, 677t
Kininogen, 389
Klinefelter’s syndrome, 613
Knee jerk, 302
Korotkoff’s sounds, 387
Krebs cycle, 79–82, 570
Kwashiorkor, 403
L
Labeled lines, 195
Laboratory tests, 685–86, 688–89, 691
Labyrinth, 222
Lactase, 560
Lactate, 79
Lactation, 636–38
Lacteal vessel, 536
Lactic acid, 26, 273
Lactose, 28
Lactose intolerance, 560
Laminar blood fl ow, 377
Language, and cerebral dominance, 247–49, 251
Lansoprazole, 558
Laplace, Law of, 453
Large intestine, 531t, 532, 534t, 556–57
Laron Dwarfi sm, 348
Larynx, 443
Late antral follicle, 636t
Latent period, 269
Late-phase reaction, 674
Lateral inhibition, 197–98
Lateral sacs, 262
Lateral traction, 454
Lateral ventricle, 175f
Law of Laplace, 453
Law of mass action, 73
Laxatives, 561
L-dopa, 167, 306
Leakiness, of capillaries, 396
Leak potassium channels, 147
Learned refl exes, 9
Learning, 9, 245, 246–47, 251
Left hemisphere, 249
Left ventricular hypertrophy, 419
Lengthening contraction, 267
Length-monitoring systems, 300–302
Length-tension relation, 270–71
Lens, 209, 210
Leptin, 318t, 542, 586–87, 589
Leukocytes
composition of blood, 360
description and functions of, 428–29, 647, 649t
hormones produced by, 318t
Leukotrienes, 131–32, 677t
Lever action, of muscles and bones, 278–79
Levitra, 610
Levodopa, 306
Leydig cells, 605
LH surge, 619, 621–22, 623t
Libido, 612
Lidocaine, 154
Ligand, 66
Ligand-gated channels, 100, 126, 151
Light, and vision, 208–210
Light adaptation, 214
Light chains, 259
Light-dark cycle, 14
Limbus system, 176, 249
Lingual papillae, 224
Linoleic acid, 92
Linolenic acid, 92
Lipase, 537, 552t
Lipid(s)
characteristics of, 27t, 29–31
membrane proteins, 47–48
protein synthesis, 61
Lipid bilayer, 99–100, 108t
Lipid-soluble messengers, 124
Lipolysis, 570, 571t, 577t
Lipoprotein(s), 568
Lipoprotein lipase, 569
Lipoxygenase, 132
Liquids, diffusion of gases in, 458–59
Lisinopril, 509
Lithium, 243
Liver
absorbed carbohydrate, 568
arterioles, 393t
autonomic nervous system, 184t
bile secretion, 553–54
capillaries, 396
cholesterol homeostasis, 581
clotting, 435
electron micrograph of cell, 44f
functions, 531t, 532, 533t
gluconeogenesis, 86
hormones, 318t, 542t
protein and amino acid metabolism, 89
Load, muscle, 266
Load-velocity relation, 269–70
Lobes, of brain, 174.
See also
Frontal lobes
Local afferent input, 300
Local anesthetics, 154
Local controls, of arterioles, 389–90
Local factors, in smooth muscle tension, 289
Local homeostatic responses, 11
Lockjaw, 311
Locus ceruleus, 239
Longitudinal muscle, 535
Long-loop negative feedback, 335
Long neural pathways, 173
Long refl exes, 541
Long-term depression (LTD), 246
Long-term memory, 246, 247
Long-term potentiation (LTP), 169, 246
Loop diuretics, 523
Loop of Henle
“division of labor” in renal tubules, 497, 515t
structure of kidneys and urinary system, 487, 488f
urine concentration, 504
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), 581–82
Lower esophageal sphincter, 544, 545
Lower motor neurons, 309
Low-resistance shock, 414, 693
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), 169
L-type calcium channels, 290, 370
Lumbar nerves, 179f
Luminal membrane, 114, 495–96, 501
Lunelle, 638
Lung(s).
See also
Respiratory system
arterioles, 393t
autonomic nervous system, 184t
mechanics of, 446–57, 479–80
nonrespiratory functions of, 478, 481
thorax, 444–46
transport of hydrogen ions between tissues and,
468–69, 480
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