760
Index
Hydrophobic molecules, 24, 36t
Hydrostatic pressure, 362
Hydroxyapatite, 352
Hydroxybutyric acid, 579
Hydroxyl group, 23
Hydroxyl radical, 84
Hymen, 615
Hyperaldosteronism, 515
Hyperalgesia, 206
Hypercalcemia, 355–56
Hypercapnea, 476
Hypercholesterolemia, 424
Hypercoagulability, 435, 690
Hyperemeia, 389–90
Hyperglycemia, 580
Hyperkalemia, 513
Hyperopic vision, 211
Hyperosmotic solutions, 111, 112t, 503
Hyperpolarization, of graded potentials,
149, 151f
Hyperprolactinemia, 613, 640
Hyperresponsiveness, 327, 328
Hypersecretion, 327–28
Hypersensitivity, 673–74
Hypertension.
See also
Blood pressure
defi
ned, 419, 424
diuretics, 523
drugs used to treat, 420t
renal system, 509
stress, 344
Hyperthermia, 595
Hyperthyroidism, 340–41, 686
Hypertonia, 309
Hypertonic medullary interstitium, 506
Hypertonic solutions, 111, 112t, 550
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 382
Hypertrophy, 256, 338, 341
Hyperventilation
alveolar gas pressures, 460
hydrogen ion concentration and refl
exly
induced, 473f
pulmonary embolism, 690
voluntary control of breathing, 476
Hypocalcemia, 280, 355–56
Hypocalcemic tetany, 280, 356
Hypoglossal nerves, 178t
Hypoglycemia, 274, 574, 575, 580
Hypogonadism, 612, 613
Hypokalemia, 513
Hypoosmotic solutions, 111, 112t, 503
Hypophysiotropic hormones, 318t, 331, 332–34
Hyporesponsiveness, 328
Hyposecretion, 327–28
Hypotension, 343, 344, 413–14, 424.
See also
Blood pressure
Hypothalamo-pituitary portal vessels, 331
Hypothalamus
brain anatomy, 175f
endocrine system, 318t, 330–36
functions of, 176
motivation, 241
sleep-wake cycles, 236
temperature regulation, 591–92
Hypothyroidism, 340–41
Hypotonia, 310
Hypotonic solutions, 111, 112t
Hypoventilation, 460, 476t, 518
Hypovolemic shock, 414
Hypoxemia, 689, 690
Hypoxic hypoxia, 476, 481
H zone, 257
I
I band, 257
Identical twins, 619
IgA antibodies, 664, 677t
IgD antibodies, 664, 677t
IgE antibodies, 664, 677t
IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, 674
IgG antibodies, 664, 666, 677t
IgM antibodies, 664, 666, 677t
Ileocecal sphincter, 556
Ileum, 532
Immediate hypersensitivity, 674
Immune-complex hypersensitivity, 674
Immune surveillance, 646
Immune system.
See also
Autoimmune diseases
breastfeeding, 637–38
cell mediating immune defenses, 647–48,
649t, 678
cells, 676t
chemical mediators, 677t
cortisol, 342, 343
harmful immune responses, 672–76, 680
infection, 668–72, 680
nonspecifi
c immune defenses, 646, 648, 650–54,
666, 679
primary functions of, 4t
specifi
c immune defenses, 654–58, 679–80
Immune tolerance, 662–63
Immunogen, 655
Immunoglobulins, 658, 659f, 665, 677t
Immunology, 646
Immunosuppression, 345
Implantation, of fertilized egg, 629
Inactivation gate, 152
Incontinence, 499
Incus, 218
Indirect G-protein gating, 130
Infection.
See also
Viruses
bacterial, 693
fever, 595
immune system, 668–72, 680
metabolic rate, 584t
pregnancy, 638
Inferior vena cava, 361
Infertility, 639
Infl ammation, 343, 648, 650–54
Infl ammatory bowel disease, 536, 560, 675–76
Infundibulum, 330
Inhibin, 318t, 600, 620, 621
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP),
162–63, 266
Inhibitory synapse, 159, 162–63
Initial segment, of neuron, 138
Initiation factors, 59
Injury, and edema, 403.
See also
Head trauma;
Tissue injury
Inner cell mass, 629
Inner ear, 218
Inner emotions, 241
Inner segment, 212–13
Innervation, 367
Inositol, 92
Inositol trisphosphate (IP
3
), 130, 134t
Insensible water loss, 500, 593
Insomnia, 237
Inspiration, 443, 449f, 469
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), 454
Insuffi ciency, and heart murmurs, 377
Insulin.
See also
Diabetes mellitus; Insulin
resistance
facilitated diffusion, 104
functions of, 318t, 349
growth, 349
organic metabolism, 572
stress, 343
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), 318t, 332,
348, 349
Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), 349
Insulin resistance, 578
Integral membrane proteins, 47
Integrating center, 10
Integrative physiology, 684, 687–88, 690, 693
Integrators, 138
Integrins, 48
Integumentary system, primary functions of, 4t
Intension tremor, 307
Intercellular clefts, 394
Intercellular fl uid, 5
Intercostal muscles, 445
Interferon(s), 650t, 654, 677t
Interferon-gamma, 650t, 668, 677t
Interleukins
antigen presentation, 661–62
antigen recognition, 663
endogenous pyrogen, 594–96
functions of, 650t
hematopoietic growth factors, 430t
role of in immune responses, 671t
viral infections, 668, 670
Intermediate fi laments, 53–54
Internal anal sphincter, 557
Internal environment, 5
Internal genitalia, 615
Internalization, of receptors, 123
Internal urethral sphincter, 498–99
Internal work, 584
Interneuron(s), 139, 140–41, 299–300
Interneuronal synapses, 266
Interstitial fl uid, 5, 6, 401
Interventricular septum, 365
Intestinal phase, of gastrointestinal control,
543, 549t
Intestine, and autonomic nervous system, 184t.
See also
Large intestine; Small intestine
Intestino-intestinal refl ex, 556
Intracellular buffer, 518
Intracellular chemical messengers, 11–12
Intracellular receptors, 125f
Intracellular fl uid, 45
Intracranial hemorrhage, 250
Intracranial pressure, 412
Intrafusal fi bers, 300
Intrapleural fl uid, 446
Intrapleural pressure, 446, 450f, 451
Intrarenal baroreceptors, 508
Intrauterine device (IUD), 638
Intrinsic factor, 427, 540
Intrinsic pathway, 433, 434f
Intrinsic tone, 389
Introns, 58
Inulin, 497
In vitro fertilization, 639
Involuntary movement, 299
Iodide trapping, 337
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