Index
759
Gonadotropin(s), 600
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
anterior pituitary, 334
control of testes, 611
follicle development, 621
functions of, 318t
mechanisms of action, 600
pregnancy, 633
puberty, 626, 627
G protein(s), 127, 130–31
G-protein-coupled receptors, 127
Graafi an follicle, 618
Graded potential, 149–57
Graft rejection, 672
Gram atomic mass, 20
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
(G-CSF), 430
Granulosa cells, 617, 621, 623t
Graves’ disease, 340–41, 686–87
Gravity, and posture, 310, 414, 415
Gray matter, 174, 175f
Growth.
See also
Development
bone, 346, 351
environmental factors, 347, 351
follicles, 617–19
metabolic rate, 584t
hormonal infl
uences on, 347–50, 351
secondary sex characteristics, 612
thyroid hormones, 339
Growth cone, 142
Growth factors, 319t, 347
Growth hormone, 319t, 347–49, 576
Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome, 348
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH),
318t, 334, 348
Growth-inhibiting factors, 347
Guanine, 36, 37f, 38
Guanosine diphosphate (GDP), 82
Guanosine triphosphate (GTP), 82
Guanylyl cyclase, 126, 213, 610
Gustation, 224
Gymnastics, 578
Gynecomastia, 613
Gyrus, 174, 175f
H
HAART (highly active anti-retroviral therapy), 671
Habituation, 238
Hair cells, 221, 223
Harvey, William, 361
Hashimoto’s disease, 340
H
+
-ATPase, 106
Hbuffer, 518
Head trauma, 250
Health.
See also
Diseases; Pathophysiology
cardiovascular system, 413–25
essential nutrients, 91
Hearing, and sensory system, 217–22, 227, 228
Hearing aids, 222
Heart.
See also
Cardiac muscle; Heart attacks;
Heart disease; Heart failure; Heart rate
anatomy of, 365–67, 383
arterioles, 393t
autonomic nervous system, 184t
cardiac cycle, 373–78, 383
cardiac output, 378–82, 383
heartbeat coordination, 367–73, 383
hormones, 318t
measurement of cardiac function, 382, 383
overview of cardiovascular system, 364t
Heart attacks, 422–24
Heartbeat coordination, 367–73, 383
Heartburn, 545
Heart disease, 371
Heart failure, 382, 403, 419–21, 424.
See also
Congestive heart failure
Heart murmurs, 377–78
Heart rate
cardiac output, 378
exercise, 416, 418, 419f
heart failure, 421
sequence of excitation, 368
Heart sounds, 377–78
Heart valve defects, 378f
Heat acclimatization, 594
Heat exhaustion, 596
Heat intolerance, 341, 684–88, 694
Heat loss and gain, 591, 593, 594t
Heat production, 592–93, 594t
Heat stroke, 596
Heavy chains, 259
Hedonistic appetite, for salt, 512
Helicobacter pylori,
558, 559
Helicotrema, 220
Helper T cells (CD4 cells)
antigen presentation, 660–62
antigen recognition, 663
functions of, 649t, 658, 659f
HIV, 671
role of in immune responses, 676t
viral infection, 669t, 671
Hematocrit, 360, 363
Hematoma, 431
Hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs), 429, 430t
Heme, 463
Hemochromatosis, 426, 540
Hemodialysis, 524–25
Hemodynamics, 362
Hemoglobin
erythrocytes, 425–26
iron, 540
structure of, 36f
transport of oxygen, 463–66, 468t
Hemolytic anemia, 678
Hemolytic disease of the newborn, 673
Hemolytic jaundice, 559–60
Hemophilin, 435
Hemorrhage, 413–14, 424, 428t
Hemostasis, 431–38
Henry’s law, 458, 463
Heparin, 436, 437, 690
Hepatic functions, 532.
See also
Liver
Hepatic portal vein, 536
Hepatitis, 666
Hepatocytes, 553
Hering-Breuer refl ex, 470
Heroin, 186, 245t
Hexoses, 28
High-density lipoproteins (HDL), 581–82
High-frequency fatigue, 273
Hippocampus, 176f, 243
Histamine
biogenic amines as neurotransmitters, 167t
defi
ned, 677t
edema, 403
immediate hypersensitivity, 674
infl
ammation of lungs, 478
local infl
ammatory mediators, 651t
Histones, 55
Histotoxic hypoxia, 476
H
+
/K
+
-ATPase, 106, 546
Homeostasis.
See also
Homeostatic control
systems
defi
ned, 6
as defi
ning feature of physiology, 6–7
endocrine control of calcium, 352–56
of energy in exercise and stress, 577–78, 582
intracellular chemical messengers, 11–12
processes related to, 13–15
Homeostatic control systems.
See also
Homeostasis
components of, 9–11
feedback systems, 8
feedforward regulation, 9
general characteristics of, 7, 9t
kidneys, 518, 522
resetting of set points, 8–9
Homeothermic temperature, 590
Homocysteine, 422–23
Homosexuality, 604
Horizontal cells, 214
Hormone(s).
See also
Endocrine system;
Estrogen; Follicle-stimulating hormone;
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone; Hormone
replacement therapy; Insulin; Luteinizing
hormone; Testosterone
arterioles, 391
blood and transport of, 323–24, 328
control of secretion, 326–27, 329
defi
ned, 316
gastrointestinal regulation, 541–43
growth, 347, 351
homeostasis, 11
male reproductive functions, 611–13, 614
mechanisms of action, 324–25, 329
metabolic rate, 584t
metabolism and excretion, 324, 328
neurotransmitters, 167
ovarian, 619
pregnancy, 632–34
smooth muscles, 287–89
structure and synthesis, 317–23, 328
Hormone-receptor binding, 325
Hormone replacement therapy, 640
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), 575
Hot fl ashes, 640
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), 319t, 632
Human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV), 671
Human physiology, scope of, 2.
See also
Physiology
Human placental lactogen (hPL), 319t, 633
Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy, 355
Hydralazine, 678
Hydrocephalus, 186
Hydrochloric acid, 26, 530, 532, 545–48
Hydrogen.
See also
Hydrogen ions
atoms, 21
hemoglobin saturation, 466–67
transport between tissues and lungs, 468–69
Hydrogen bonds, 23–24, 36t, 38f
Hydrogen ions, 26, 470–75, 480, 517–22
Hydrogen peroxide, 84, 652
Hydrolysis, 24, 260, 267t, 286
Hydrophilic molecules, 24
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