758
Index
Fasting.
See also
Nutrients and nutrition
fatty acid and ketone utilization during, 570
hypoglycemia, 580
metabolic rate, 585t, 587
Fast-oxidative-glycolytic fi bers, 274, 275f, 276t
Fat.
See also
Fatty acids
digestion and absorption, 537–39
metabolism, 87–91, 93, 567–83
obesity and distribution of, 588
Fat cells, and autonomic nervous system, 184t
Fat-soluble vitamins, 92
Fatty acids
absorbed triglycerides, 569
cholesterol, 581
defi
ned, 29
digestion and absorption, 538
energy metabolism, 272
essential nutrients, 92
fat metabolism, 87–88, 89
functions of, 29–30
Fc portions, 658, 659
Feces, 529
Feedback systems.
See also
Negative feedback;
Positive feedback
homeostasis, 8
hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, 335–36
Feedforward regulation, 9
Female internal genitalia, 615
Female reproductive physiology, 615–42
Ferritin, 426
Fertilization, of egg, 627–28, 639
Fetal hemoglobin, 469
Fetus, 629, 672.
See also
Parturition; Pregnancy
Fever, 8, 594–95, 691–94, 695
Fiber(s), 3–4, 536–37, 561
Fibrin, 432, 433f
Fibrinogen, 425, 531
Fibrinolytic system, 436
Fibroblasts, 318t
Fight-or-fl ight response, 183, 343, 578
Filtered load, 494
Filtration, glomerular, 492–94
Fimbriae, 615
First law of thermodynamics, 583
First messengers, 125f, 126
5
α
-reductase, 612
Flaccid muscles, 310
Flatus, 557
Flexion, 278
Flow autoregulation, 390
Flow-induced arterial vasodilation, 392
Fluid-mosaic model, 48
Fluid endocytosis, 112
Flux, 97, 98f, 103, 108t
Folic acid, 422, 426–27
Follicles, 337, 617–19, 620–21
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
anterior pituitary, 331, 332, 600
control of testes, 611
follicle development, 620–21
functions of, 319t
luteal phase of menstrual cycle, 623
pregnancy, 633
Follicular phase, 619
Food, control of intake, 586–88.
See also
Diet;
Nutrients and nutrition
Food-induced thermogenesis, 585
“Foot processes,” 262
Forced expiratory volume (FEV), 455
Forebrain, 174–76, 236
Formed elements, 360
Fovea centralis, 209
Frank-Starling mechanism, 379–80, 416
Fraternal twins, 619
Free fatty acids (FFA), 570
Free radicals, 21–23
Free-running rhythm, 14
Frequency, of light, 208
Frequency-tension relation, 270
Frontal lobes, 174, 175f, 176f, 248f
Fructose, 28, 537
F-type sodium channels, 370
Fuel metabolism, 91
Fugu, 154
Functional residual capacity (FRC), 454
Functional site, 69
Functional units, 4
Fundus, 545
Fused tetanus, 270
Fused-vesicle channels, 394
G
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), 170
Galactorrhea, 640
Gallbladder, 184t, 531t, 532, 542t
Gallstones, 559–60
Gametes, 600
Gametogenesis, 600, 601–602
Gamma globulin, 664
Gamma motor neurons, 303
Ganglia, 174
Ganglion cells, 214
Gap junction, 48, 49f
Gas exchange, and respiratory system, 457–62,
477, 480
Gastric lumen, 532
Gastric motility, 548–51
Gastric phase, of gastrointestinal process, 543, 549t
Gastric ulcers, 557
Gastrin, 318t, 541, 542t, 550
Gastritis, 558
Gastrocnemius muscle, 278, 279f
Gastroesophageal refl ux, 545
Gastroileal refl ex, 556
Gastrointestinal (GI) system.
See also
Gastrointestinal tract
defi
ned, 528
digestion and absorption, 536–40, 561–62
functions of gastrointestinal organs, 530–34
gastrointestinal wall structure, 534–36, 561
pathophysiology of, 557–61, 563
regulation of, 540–57, 562–63
Gastrointestinal tract.
See also
Gastrointestinal
system
arterioles, 393t
calcium homeostasis, 353
defi
ned, 528
gastrointestinal wall, 534–36, 561
hormones, 318t
Gastrointestinal wall, 534–36, 561
Gender, and metabolic rate, 584t
Gene, 55
Genetic(s).
See also
Chromosomes; DNA; Genetic
code; Meiosis; Mitosis; RNA
color blindness, 227
immune disorders, 671
multiple sclerosis, 158
obesity, 589
sexual behavior, 604
Genetic code, for proteins and protein synthesis,
55–66
Genitalia, 603–604
Genome, 55
Genotype, 602
Germ cells, 601, 609f
Gestation, 605
Ghrelin, 318t, 542, 587–88
Gigantism, 350
Glaucoma, 211
Glial cells, 141–42, 143
Globin, 463
Globulins, 425
Glomerular capillaries, 487, 489, 490f, 492
Glomerular fi ltration, 489, 492–94
Glomerular fi ltration rate (GFR), 493–94,
497, 507
Glomerular membranes, 490f
Glomerulus, 487, 515t
Glossopharyngeal nerves, 178t
Glottis, 543, 544f
Glucagon, 318t, 575, 580
Glucocorticoids, 322, 345, 694
Gluconeogenesis, 86–87, 486, 570, 577t
Glucose
absorbed carbohydrate, 568
capillaries, 396
carbohydrates, 28, 85–86
diffusion, 97, 98f, 104
ltration and reabsorption in kidney, 495t, 496
homeostasis, 6
plasma concentration during exercise,
577–78
sources of in blood, 570
synthesis, 86–87
Glucose-counterregulatory
controls, 574
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP),
318t, 541, 542t, 574
Glucose sparing, 570
Glucose transporter (GLUT-4), 572
Glucosuria, 496
Glutamate, 169–70
Glutamic acid, 90f
Gluten, 539
Glycerol, 30
α
-Glycerol phosphate, 88
Glycine, 170
Glycocalyx, 47
Glycogen, 28–29, 86
Glycogenolysis, 86, 570, 571t, 577t
Glycogen phosphorylase, 573
Glycogen storage, 86
Glycogen synthase, 573
Glycolysis, 78–79, 81t, 273
Glycolytic fi bers, 274
Glycolytic pathway, 80f
Glycoprotein, 33
Goiter, 338, 340f, 686
Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (GHK) equation, 147
Golgi apparatus, 51–52, 65, 114
Golgi tendon organ, 300f, 303, 304f
Gonad(s), 320, 323, 600, 603
Gonadal steroids, 600
Gonadotropic hormones, 331
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