Index
757
Embryo, 629
Emetics, 559
Emission, and transport of sperm, 610
Emotions, 240, 241–42, 250–51
Emphysema, 454, 472, 477
Emulsifi cation, 537
End-diastolic volume (EDV)
defi
ned, 375
ejection fraction, 380
exercise, 416, 418t
heart failure, 420f
Endocrine disorders, 327–28, 329
Endocrine glands, 11, 316
Endocrine system.
See also
Endocrine disorders;
Enzymes; Hormones
calcium homeostasis, 352–56
control of absorptive and postabsorptive states,
571–77, 582
growth, 346–52
hormonal control systems, 317–29
hypothalamus and pituitary, 330–36
liver functions, 533t
primary functions of, 4t, 316
stress, 342–46
thyroid hormones, 337–41
Endocytosis, 112–14, 117
Endogenous cryogens, 595
Endogenous opioids, 170
Endogenous pyrogens (EP), 594–95
Endolymph, 218
Endoplasmic reticulum, 51
Endorphin, 247
Endoscope and endoscopy, 557, 558f
Endosomes, 52
Endothelial cell(s)
anatomy of heart, 365
functions of, 385t
hormones produced by, 318t
vascular smooth muscle, 391–92
Endothelial-cell cyclooxygenase, 437
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), 392
Endothelium, 365
Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), 391
End-plate potential (EPP), 264, 266
End-product inhibition, 77
End-systolic volume (ESV), 375
Endurance training, 277, 417–19
Energy
homeostasis in exercise and stress, 577–78, 582
total-body balance of temperature and,
583–95, 596
Enkephalins, 170, 247
Enteric nervous system, 180, 541
Enterochromaffi n-like (ECL) cells, 545
Enteroendocrine cells, 545
Enterogastrones, 548
Enterohepatic circulation, 553
Enterokinase, 552
Entrainment, 13–14
Environmental factors
growth, 347, 351
immune responses, 671
metabolic rate, 584t
multiple sclerosis, 158
Enzyme(s).
See also
Endocrine system
chemical reactions, 71, 73–78
pancreas and digestive, 551–53
protein binding sites, 70
receptors, 126
Enzyme activity, 75–76
Enzyme-mediated reactions, 75–76, 78
Eosinophils, 429, 649t, 676t
Ependymal cells, 142
Epicardium, 365
Epidemic, of AIDS, 671
Epidermal growth factor, 319t
Epididymis, 605, 607f
Epidural hematoma, 250
Epiglottis, 543, 544f
Epilepsy, 233, 249
Epinephrine
arterioles, 391
catecholamines, 167
functions of, 318t
heart rate, 379
learning and memory, 247
metabolic rate, 585
nutrient metabolism, 575–76
receptors and binding, 121f
stress, 343
structure and synthesis, 317
“Epiphenomenon hypothesis,” 233
Epiphyseal closure, 346
Epiphyseal growth plate, 346
Epiphyses, 346
Epithelial cells, 2, 3, 48
Epithelial tissue, 3
Epithelial transport, 114–16, 117
Epitopes, 661
Eplerenone, 509
Equilibrium, and homeostasis, 7
Equilibrium potential, 146, 150t
Erectile dysfunction, 610
Erection, and transport of sperm, 609–10
Ergocalciferol, 354
Erythrocytes, 360, 425–28, 433f
Erythropoiesis, 414, 427
Erythropoietin (EPO)
acclimatization to altitude, 477t
functions of, 318t
hematopoietic growth factors, 430t
hemorrhage, 414
regulation of production, 427–28
Erythromycin, 672
Escherichia coli,
692
Esophagus, 530, 531t, 543–45
Essential amino acids, 90
Essential nutrients, 91–92, 93
Estradiol, 318t, 323, 600
Estriol, 600
Estrogen.
See also
Estrone; Estradiol
defi
ned, 323
female reproductive system, 625–26
follicle development, 620–21
major functions of, 318t, 319t
major sex hormones, 600
menopause, 640
menstrual cycle, 624
Estrogen priming, 625
Estrone, 600
Ethanol, 171
Eukaryotic cells, 45, 61
Eustachian tube, 218
Evaporation, and body temperature, 591, 593
Everest, Mt., 477
Evolution, 63, 589.
See also
Adaptation
Excessive infl ammatory responses, 675–76
Excitability, of action potentials, 151
Excitable membranes, 151
Excitation, sequence of, 368–69
Excitation-contraction coupling
cardiac muscle, 290–91, 371, 373
cytosolic calcium, 286–87, 373
skeletal muscle contraction, 261–63
smooth muscle cells, 286–87
Excitatory amino acids, 169
Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP),
162–63, 164
Excitatory synapses, 159, 161–62
Excitotoxicity, 170
Excretion
of hormones, 324, 328
liver functions, 533t
Exercise
amenorrhea, 578, 640
cardiac output, 415–19, 424
control of ventilation during, 474–75
energy homeostasis in stress and, 577–78, 582
heart attack, 422
hyperthermia, 595
muscle adaptation to, 277–78
obesity and weight loss, 580
resistance to infection and cancer, 670
sweating and renal retention of water, 512
weight loss, 589
Exercise-induced amenorrhea, 578
Exocrine system, and liver
functions, 533t
Exocytosis, 112–14, 117
Exons, 58
Exopthalmos, 684
Expiration, 443, 451–52
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV), 455
Expressive aphasias, 247
Extension, of muscles, 278
External anal sphincter, 557
External auditory canal, 218
External environment, 3
External genitalia, 604, 615
External urethral sphincter, 498–99
External work, 584
Extracellular buffer, 518
Extracellular fl uid, 5, 64f, 397
Extracellular matrix, 3–4
Extracellular osmolarity, 110–12
Extrafusal fi bers, 300, 301f
Extrapyramidal system, 309
Extrinsic controls, of arterioles, 390–91
Extrinsic pathway, 433, 434f, 435
Eye(s)
anatomy of, 209
autonomic nervous system, 184t
vision, 208–17
Eye movement, 216–17
F
Facial nerves, 178t
Facilitated diffusion, 103–104, 108t
Factors V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XII, XIII, 433–35
FAD (fl avine adenine dinucleotide), 74
Fallopian tubes, 615
Familial hypercholesterolemia, 582
Familial renal glucosuria, 497
Farsightedness, 211
Fast fi bers, 274
Fast-glycolytic fi bers, 274, 275f, 276t
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