756
Index
Dehydration, 24, 274
Dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA), 322, 350, 600
Delayed hypersensitivity, 674
Delta cells (D cells), 572
Delta rhythm, 234
Dendrites, 138
Dendritic cells, 647, 649t, 676t
Denervation atrophy, 277
Dense bodies, 284
Deoxyhemoglobin (Hb), 463, 468
Deoxyribonuclease, 552t
Deoxyribonucleic acid.
See
DNA
Deoxyribose, 36
Dependence, and substance abuse, 244–45
Depolarization, of graded potentials, 149, 151f
Depo-Provera, 638
Depression, 243–44
Descending limb, 487, 515t
Descending pathways, 199f, 297–98, 308, 312
Desmodus rotundus salivary plasminogen activator
(DSPA), 437
Desmosomes, 48, 49f
Detrusor muscle, 498
Development.
See also
Age and aging; Children;
Fetus; Growth
central nervous system, 174
cortisol, 342
thyroid hormones, 339
Developmental acclimatization, 13
Diabetes insipidus, 503
Diabetes mellitus.
See also
Insulin
defi nition and description of, 578–80
facilitated diffusion, 104
hyporesponsiveness, 328
reabsorption of glucose by kidneys, 496
resistance to infections, 670
Diabetes nephropathy, 496
Diabetic ketoacidosis, 579, 580
Diacylglycerol (DAG), 130, 134t
Diagnosis
chest pain after airplane fl
ight, 689–90
palpitations and heat intolerance, 686–87
of substance dependence, 245t
Diapedesis, 651
Diaphragm, 445
Diarrhea, 561
Diastole and diastolic pressure (DP)
cardiac cycle, 373, 374f, 375, 377
defi
ned, 386
early phase of, 377
Diastolic dysfunction, 420
Diencephalon, 174
Diet.
See also
Food; Nutrients and nutrition
cholesterol levels, 580–82
essential nutrients, 91–92, 93
diabetes mellitus, 580
ber, 536–37, 561
hydrogen ions and high-protein, 518
iodine, 340
iron, 426
obesity and weight loss, 589, 590t
pregnancy, 633t
vitamins, 92
Diffuse interstitial fi brosis, 461
Diffusion.
See also
Diffusion impairment
capillary wall, 395–97
of gases in liquids, 458–59
kidneys, 495
magnitude and direction of, 97–99, 116
medullary circulation, 506
membranes, 99–102, 116
Diffusion equilibrium, 97
Diffusion impairment, 476t
Diffusion rate, 99
Digestion, 529, 536–40, 561–62
Digestive system, primary functions of, 4t
Digitalis, 421t
Dihydropyridine (DHP) receptor, 262
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 318t, 603,
611–12
Diiodotyrosine (DIT), 337
Dimethoxymethylamphetamine (DOM), 244f
Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 244f
2,3-Diphosphoglycerate (DPG), 466–67, 477
Diplopia, 684
Direction, of diffusion, 97–99
Disaccharides, 28, 536t
Discs, of photoreceptors, 212
Disease.
See also
Pathophysiology;
specifi
c diseases
cardiovascular system, 413–25
hypoxic hypoxia, 476t
metabolic rate, 584t
stress, 344–45
synaptic mechanisms, 166
Distal convoluted tubule, 487, 515t
Disulfi de bond, 34–35
Disuse atrophy, 277
Diuresis, 503
Diuretics, 419, 420t, 421t, 523
Divergence, of presynaptic cells, 159
Division of labor, in kidneys, 514, 515t
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
See also
Genetics
gametogenesis, 601–602
protein synthesis, 55–57, 61t
RNA composition compared to, 38t
structure of, 35–36, 37f
Docking proteins, 65
Dominant follicle, 618
Dopamine
anterior pituitary, 334
catecholamines, 167
functions of, 318t
lactation, 637
molecular structure of, 244f
motivation and reward systems, 240, 241
synthesis, 317
Dopaminergic neurons, 166
Dorsal column pathway, 206, 207f
Dorsal horns, 177
Dorsal respiratory group (DRG), 469
Dorsal root ganglia, 177
Dorsal roots, 177
Double helix, 56
Down-regulation, of receptors, 122t,
123, 324
Down syndrome, 632
Drugs.
See also
Pharmacological effects;
specifi
c
drugs
AIDS and HIV, 671
anticlotting, 436–37
antidepressants, 243
chemical mediators, 241
cholesterol levels, 581
coronary artery disease, 424
diabetes mellitus, 580
heart failure, 421t
hypertension, 419, 420t
incontinence, 499
nicotine, 187
perception, 201
pregnancy and fetal development, 632
psychoactive substances, 244
renin-angiotensin system, 509
synaptic transmission, 165–66
ulcers, 558–59
Dual innervation, 182–83
Duchenne muscular dystrophy, 280, 281f
Dumping syndrome, 551
Duodenal ulcers, 557, 558f
Duodenum, 532, 550
Dura matter, 185
Dwarfi sm, 348
Dynamic constancy, 6
Dyneins, 139, 140f
Dynorphins, 170
Dysmenorrhea, 624
Dyspnea, 476
Dystrophin, 280
E
Ear, and hearing, 217–22
Early diastole, 377
Eating disorders, 589–90
Eccentric contraction, 267
ECG leads, 371, 372f
Eclampsia, 633
Ectopic pacemakers, 370
Ectopic pregnancies, 628
Edema, 401, 403, 523
EEG arousal, 234
Effector, 10
Effector mechanisms, and body temperature,
593, 594t
Efferent arteriole, 487, 494f
Efferent division, 178
Efferent neurons, 139
Efferent pathway, 10
Egg, 615, 627–28.
See also
Ova
Eicosanoids, 131–33, 651t, 677t
Ejaculation, 610
Ejaculatory ducts, 605, 607f
Ejection fraction (EF), 380
Elastase, 552t
Elastic recoil, 448
Elastin fi bers, 3
Elderly.
See
Age and aging
Electrical forces, and ion channels, 100
Electrical potential, 144, 146
Electrical synapses, 159–60
Electricity, basic principles of, 144
Electrocardiogram (ECG), 371, 372f, 422
Electrochemical gradient, 100, 148
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), 243–44
Electroencephalogram (EEG), 233, 235f, 238
Electrogenic pump, 148
Electrolytes, 21
Electromagnetic spectrum, 208
Electron(s), 19
Electron micrographs, 43, 44f, 45
Electron transport chain, 83
Elements
atomic composition of body, 19t, 20
ionic forms of in body, 22t
Elephantiasis, 401, 402f
Embolism, 424, 689
Embolus, 424
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