Index
755
Clonal inactivation, 662–63
Clones, 655
Clostridium botulinum,
166, 266
Clostridium tetani,
166, 311
Clot formation, 432–36
Clothing, and temperature regulation, 593
Clot retraction, 431
Clotting factors, 433–35.
See also
Blood clotting
factors
Clotting functions, of liver, 533t
Coactivation, of motor neurons, 303
Cocaine, 244, 245t
Cochlea, 218
Cochlear duct, 219
Cochlear implants, 222
Codeine, 170
Coding, and sensory system, 194
Codon, 58
Coenzyme, 74
Coenzyme A (CoA), 80
Cofactors, 74
Cold acclimatization, 594
Cold intolerance, 340
Colipase, 537–38
Colitis, 536
Collagen fi bers, 3
Collaterals, of neurons, 138
Collecting duct system, 487
Colloids, 337, 397
Colon, 556
Colonoscopy, 557
Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), 430t, 650t
Color, and vision, 215–16
Color blindness, 227
Colostrum, 637–38
Coma, 237–38
Combined immunodefi ciency, 671
Commissure, 173
Common bile duct, 532, 534f
Common hepatic duct, 534f
Compartmentalization, as general principle in
physiology, 5
Competition
ligand-protein binding, 68–69
receptors, 122, 123
Complement, 651t, 652–53, 665–66, 677t
Complementary bases, 58
Compliance, and blood pressure, 385
Computed tomography (CT), 691
Concentration, of solutions
basic principles, 25–26
bicarbonate in plasma, 518–20
capillaries, 397
chemical reactions, 73, 75
diffusion, 97, 98f
of gases in liquids, 459
glucose in plasma during exercise, 577–78
osmosis, 109
urine, 503–506
Concentric contraction, 267
Conceptus, 628
Concussion, 250
Conducting system, of heart, 367
Conducting zone, 444, 445t
Conduction, of heat, 591, 593
Conduction failure, 273
Conduction velocities, 155
C1 protein, 677t
Cones, of eye, 213, 215
Conformation, of molecule, 33
Congenital abnormalities, 632
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 640–41
Congestive heart failure, 419, 523
Conlateral leg, 304
Connective tissue, 3
Connective tissue cells, 2, 3
Connexins, 48
Conn’s syndrome, 515
Conscious experiences, 233, 238–40
Consciousness, states of, 233–45, 250–51
Consolidation, of memory, 246
Constipation, 560–61
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), 478
Contraception, 638–39
Contraceptives, 638
Contractility, and cardiac output, 380
Contraction, of muscle, 258–71, 281–82, 285–90
Contraction time, 269
Convection, 591
Convergence, of presynaptic cells, 159
Cooperativity
combination of oxygen with hemoglobin, 463
protein binding sites, 69–70
Core body temperature, 590
Cornea, 209, 210
Coronary arteries, 367
Coronary artery disease, 422–24
Coronary balloon angioplasty, 424
Coronary blood fl ow, 367
Coronary bypass, 424
Coronary stents, 424
Coronary thrombosis, 422
Corpus callosum, 174, 175f
Corpus luteum, 636t
Corrective responses, and biological rhythms, 13
Cortical association areas, 200
Cortical collecting duct, 487, 515t
Cortical nephrons, 488f, 489
Cortical reaction, 628
Corticobulbar pathway, 308
Corticospinal pathways, 308–309
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
feedback control, 335
functions of, 318t
hypophysiotropic hormones, 334
parturition, 636
stress, 342
Cortisol
adrenal cortex, 321
antigrowth effect, 350
functions of, 318t
nutrient metabolism, 576, 577t
pharmacological effects of, 325
stress, 342–43
Costimulus, 661
Cotransmitter, 160, 165
Cotransport, 107
Cough refl ex, 475–76
Countercurrent multiplier system, 503–506
Countertransport, 107
Covalent bond, 20, 36t
Covalent modulation, 63t, 70–71
Cramps, 309
Cranial nerves, 177
C-reactive protein, 654, 677t
Creatine, 486
Creatine phosphate, 272–73
Creatinine clearance, 497
Cretinism, 339
Cristae, 52, 53f
Crohn’s disease, 536, 560
Cross-bridges and cross-bridge cycling
skeletal muscle, 258, 259, 260f, 267, 274
smooth muscle, 285–86
Crossed-extensor refl ex, 304
Crossing-over, of chromosomes, 602
Cross-matching, of blood types, 673
Cross-talk, in immune system, 648
Cross-tolerance, 245
Cryptorchidism, 603
Crystalloids, 397
C3b, 653, 654f, 666
Cumulus oophorous, 618
Cupula, 222, 223f
Curare, 266
Current, electrical, 144
Cushing’s phenomenon, 412
Cushing’s syndrome, 344–45
Cusps, 365
Cyanide, 476
Cyclic AMP (cAMP), 127–30, 134t
Cyclic endoperoxides, 131–32
Cyclic GMP (cGMP), 126, 134t, 610
Cyclooxygenase (COX), 132, 437
Cyclosporin, 672
Cyclosporine, 560
Cystic fi brosis, 444
Cytochrome(s), 83
Cytochrome P450s, 320
Cytokines
cell mediating immune defenses, 648
defi
ned, 677t
functions and sources of, 318t, 650t
local infl
ammatory mediators, 651t
Cytoplasm, 45, 46f, 64f
Cytosine, 36, 37f, 38
Cytoskeletal fi laments, 54f
Cytoskeleton, 53–54
Cytosol, 45, 46f, 65
Cytosolic calcium, 286–89
Cytotoxic T cells (CD8 cells).
See also
T cells
antigen presentation, 662
functions of, 649t, 658, 659f
role of in immune responses, 676t
viral infection, 667–68, 669t
D
Dairy products, and lactose intolerance, 560
Dalton’s law, 457–58
Dark adaptation, 214
Daughter cells, 602
Daytime somnolence, 478
Dead space, 456–57
Death.
See also
Brain death
rigor mortis, 261
sudden cardiac, 382
Declarative memory, 245
Decremental current, 150
Decussate, 308
Deep vein thrombosis, 689, 690
Defecation, 532, 557
Defecation refl ex, 557
Defi brillation, 422
Degradation
liver functions, 533t
of proteins, 63, 65
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