754
Index
Capillary fi ltration coeffi cient, 399
Capillary hydrostatic pressure, 398–99
Capillary wall, 395–97
Capsaicin, 204
Carbamino hemoglobin, 467
Carbohydrates
characteristics of, 27–29
digestion and absorption, 536–37
metabolism, 85–87, 93, 567–83
protein synthesis, 61
Carbon dioxide
capillaries, 396
chemical reactions, 72, 73
gas exchange in respiratory system, 458f, 459f, 460
molecules, 20
respiratory rate and tidal volume, 472–73, 474
transport of in blood, 467–68, 480
ventilation-perfusion abnormalities, 462,
476–77
Carbonic acid, 26, 72, 73
Carbonic anhydrase, 74, 467
Carbon monoxide, 171, 468–69
Carbon monoxide hypoxia, 476
Carboxyl group, 21
Carboxypeptidase, 537, 552t
Cardiac angiography, 382
Cardiac cycle, 373–78, 383
Cardiac function, measurement of, 382, 383
Cardiac inotropic drugs, 421t
Cardiac muscle
anatomy of heart, 366–67
cellular structure, 290, 292t, 293
excitation-contraction coupling, 290–91, 293
structure of striated muscle, 255, 293
Cardiac output (CO), 378–82, 383, 406, 415–19
Cardiogenic shock, 414
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 422
Cardiovascular refl exes, 411, 412
Cardiovascular system.
See also
Vascular system
baroreceptor refl
exes, 408–10, 412
blood volume and regulation of arterial
pressure, 410–11, 412
cardiovascular refl
exes and responses, 411, 412
composition of blood, 425–30, 437–38
heart, 365–84
hemostasis, 431–37, 438
hyperthyroidism, 341
overview of, 364t
role in health and disease, 413–25
systemic arterial pressure, 405–408
Carnitine, 92
Carotid bodies, 470
Carotid sinus, 408
Case presentation
abdominal pain, fever, and circulatory failure,
691–94
chest pain after airplane fl
ight, 688
palpitations and heat intolerance, 684–88
Castration, 612
Catabolism, 71, 85–86, 87–88, 92
Catalyst, 72
Cataract, 210
Catatonia, 243
Catch-up growth, 347
Catecholamines, 167–68, 323t, 325
Catheter, 691
Cations, 21
Caveolae, 114
CD4 protein, 671
Cecum, 556
Cell(s).
See also
Cell volume; Nucleus
as basic units of living organisms, 2–3
blood, 425–30, 457–58
defi
ned, 43, 364t
immune system, 676t
membranes, 45–48
microscopic observation of, 43–45
muscle, 290, 292t
mutations, 63
structure of, 45f
Cell body, of neuron, 138
Cell differentiation, 2
Cell mediating immune defenses, 647–48,
649t, 678
Cell membrane.
See
Membranes
Cell organelles, 45, 48–49, 54–55
Cellular energy transfer, 78–84, 92–93
Cell volume, 110–12
Center of gravity, 310
Central chemoreceptors, 471, 472, 473
Central command fatigue, 274
Central nervous system (CNS).
See also
Neural
mechanisms and control; Neurons
axonal regneration, 143
brain, 174–77, 187
control of gastrointestinal functions, 533–34
membrane potentials, 144–59
sensory system, 194f
sexual differentiation and homosexuality, 604
spinal cord, 177, 187
synapses, 159–72
Central sleep apnea, 478
Central sulcus, 200
Central thermoreceptors, 591
Centrioles, 54
Centrosome, 54
Cephalic phase, of gastrointestinal process,
543, 549t
Cerebellar disease, 307–308
Cerebellum, 174, 175f, 176–77, 306–308
Cerebral cortex
conscious experiences, 239
development of brain and central nervous
system, 174
emotional behavior, 242
motor control, 298f, 304–305
Cerebral dominance, and language, 247–49, 251
Cerebral hemispheres, 174,
247–49, 306f
Cerebral ventricles, 174
Cerebrospinal fl uid (CSF), 185–88
Cerebrum, 174, 175f
Cervical nerves, 179f
Cervix, 615
cGMP-dependent protein kinase, 126
Channel gating, 100
Chemical elements, 19
Chemical energy, and enzymes, 71–78
Chemical equilibrium, 72–73
Chemical mediators, 241
Chemical reactions, 72–73, 77
Chemical senses, and sensory system, 224–27,
228–29
Chemical specifi city, of binding sites, 66
Chemical synapses, 159–60, 161–63
Chemical warfare, 266
Chemiosmotic hypothesis, 83
Chemoattractants, 651, 677t
Chemokines, 650t, 651, 677t
Chemoreceptors, 193, 224
Chemotaxins, 651, 677t
Chemotaxis, 651
Chest pain, 688–90, 694
Chewing, 543
Chief cells, 545
Children, and language acquisition, 249.
See also
Age and aging
Chloride, and resting membrane potential,
145–46, 149
Chlorine ions, 20
Chlorpromazine, 241
Cholecalciferol, 354
Cholecystectomy, 560
Cholecystokinin (CCK), 318t, 541–42, 552, 554
Cholera, 561
Cholesterol
cell membrane, 47
diet and control of, 580–82
drugs to reduce, 424
endocytosis, 113
heart attacks, 422, 423
liver functions, 533t
structure of, 31f
Cholesterol esterase, 320
Choline, 92
Cholinergic neurons, 166
Chondrocytes, 346
Chordae tendineae, 365
Chorion, 630
Chorionic villi, 630
Chorionic villus sampling, 631–32
Choroid layer, 209
Choroid plexus, 185
Chromatids, 602
Chromatin, 50
Chromophore, 213
Chromosomes, 50, 602.
See also
Sex
chromosomes; X chromosome; Y chromosome
Chronic bronchitis, 454
Chronic fatigue syndrome, 344
Chronic infl ammatory diseases, 675–76
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 454, 477
Chyme, 532, 556
Chylomicrons, 538, 539
Chymotrypsin, 537, 552t
Cialis, 610
Cigarette smoking.
See
Smoking
Cilia, 54
Ciliary muscle, 209, 210
Circadian rhythm, 13
Circular muscle, 535
Circulatory failure, 691–94, 695
Circulatory system
pregnancy, 633t
pressure, fl
ow, and resistance, 362–63, 364
primary functions of, 4t
system overview, 360–62, 364
Citric acid cycle, 79
Clasp-knife phenomenon, 309
Class I and Class II MHC proteins, 660
Classical complement pathway, 665
Clathrin, 113
Clathrin-coated pit, 113
Cleavage, 628
Clitoris, 615
Clonal deletion, 662–63, 676t
Clonal expansion, 655
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