Index
753
Barr body, 603
Basal cells, 224
Basal ganglia, 176, 305
Basal metabolic rate (BMR), 584, 687
Basal nuclei, 175f, 176, 298f, 305
Base, 26
Basement membrane, 3
Basic electrical rhythm, 549
Basilar membrane, 220
Basolateral membrane, 114, 495–96, 501
Basophils, 429, 649t
B cell(s).
See also
Beta cells
defi
ned, 676t
functions of, 649t, 658
lymphocyte origins, 657
roles in immune responses, 659f
B cell receptors, 658–60
Behavior
emotions, 241–42
genetics of sexual, 604
male reproductive system, 612
motivation, 240–41
temperature regulation, 593
Benzodiazepines, 170
Bernard, Claude, 2, 6
Beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, 420t, 421t
Beta-adrenergic receptors, 168
Beta cells, 572.
See also
B cells
Beta-endorphin, 170, 319t, 331, 343
Beta-lipotropin, 319t, 331
Beta oxidation, 87
Beta rhythm, 234
Beta sheet, 34
Bicarbonate, 518
Biceps muscle, 278, 279
Bicuspid valve, 365
Bile, 532, 553–54
Bile canaliculi, 553
Bile ducts, 534f
Bile pigments, 554
Bile salts, 532, 553
Bilirubin, 426, 554, 559–60
Binding site, 66–71
Biogenic amines, 167
Biological clock, and sleep-wake cycle, 236
Biological rhythms, 13–14
Biopsy, 557
Bipolar cells, 214
Bipolar disorder, 243
Bisphosphoglycerate (BPG), 466
Bisphosphonates, 355
Bivalents, 601
Bladder, 487, 498–99
Blastocyst, 629
Blood.
See also
Blood fl ow; Blood pressure;
Plasma
carbon dioxide transport in, 467–68
cells, 425–30, 457–58
gas exchange between alveoli and, 460–61, 480
gas exchange between tissues and, 462, 480
hormone transport, 323–24, 328
oxygen transport, 463–67
pregnancy and volume, 633t
regulation of arterial pressure and volume,
410–11
sources of glucose, 570
Blood-brain barrier, 141, 185–87
Blood clotting factors, 651t.
See also
Clotting
factors
Blood coagulation, 432–35
Blood fl ow
heart murmurs, 377–78
pressure and resistance, 362–63, 364
velocity of capillary, 394–95
ventilation-perfusion inequality, 461–62
Blood pressure.
See also
Hypertension;
Hypotension
arterial, 385–88
blood fl
ow and resistance,
362–63, 364
blood volume, 410–11
regulation of, 405–408, 410–11
renal function, 509–10
stress, 411
upright posture, 414–15
venous, 399–401
Blood supply, 185–87, 367
Blood types, 672–73
Blood vessels, 363, 443–44, 445
B lymphocytes, 657
Body.
See also
Anatomy; Body movement; Body
weight;
specifi
c organs and systems
atomic composition of, 19t, 20
organization of, 2–5
of stomach, 545
Body fl uid compartments, 5–6
Body mass index (BMI), 588
Body movement
brain motor centers and descending pathways,
304–309, 312
local control of motor neurons, 299–304, 312
motor control hierarchy, 297–99, 312
muscle tone, 309–10, 312
upright posture and balance, 310, 312
walking, 310–11, 312
Body weight.
See also
Weight loss
pregnancy, 633t
total-body energy content, 586
Bone.
See also
Bone marrow; Osteoporosis
calcium homeostasis, 352–53
growth, 346, 351
metabolic diseases, 355
pregnancy and turnover of, 633t
Bone age, 346
Bone marrow, 426, 430f, 655, 656
Botulinum toxin, 266
Botulism, 166, 266
Bowman’s capsule, 487, 515t
Bowman’s space, 487, 492–93
Boyle’s law, 447, 451
Bradykinesia, 306
Bradykinin, 389
Brain.
See also
Blood-brain barrier; Brainstem;
Cerebellum; Cerebral cortex; Cerebral
hemispheres
arterioles, 393t
body movement and motor centers of,
304–09, 312
capillaries, 396
central nervous system, 174–77, 187
intracranial pressure, 412
motor control hierarchy, 298f, 312
pituitary gland, 330f
ventricles of, 185f
Brain death, 237–38
Brain extracellular-fl uid hydrogen ion
concentration, 472
Brain self-stimulation, 240
Brainstem
anterolateral and dorsal column systems, 207f
brain anatomy, 175f
development, 174
functions of, 177
motor control hierarchy, 298f
respiratory control, 469f
selection attention, 239
Brainstem nuclei, 305–306
Brainstem pathways, 308, 309
Breast cancer, 401
Breast-feeding, 637–38
Breathing.
See also
Inspiration; Respiratory system;
Ventilation
neural generation of rhythmical, 469–70
voluntary control of, 476
Breathing rate, 456, 457t
Breech presentation, and parturition, 634
Broca’s area, 247, 248f
Bronchi, 443
Bronchioles, 444
Bronchoconstriction, 462
Bronchodilator drugs, 454
Bronchoscopy, 557
Brown adipose tissue, 592
Bruit, 685
Brush border, 536
Buffering, of hydrogen ions in body, 518, 522
Bulbourethral glands, 606, 607f
Bulemia nervosa, 589–90
Bulk fl ow, 360, 396, 397, 506
Bundle of His, 369
“Butterfl y rash,” 678
C
CA
2+
-ATPase, 106
Cadherins, 48
Caesarean section, 634
Calcitonin, 319t, 355
Calcitriol, 355
Calcium
endocrine control of homeostasis, 352–56
muscle contraction, 261, 263, 267t, 270, 285,
286–89
neurotransmitter release, 161
renal regulation of, 514, 516
second messengers, 131, 134t
Calcium channel blockers, 420t
Calcium-induced calcium release, 131
Calmodulin, 131, 285
Calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, 131
Calorie, 72, 584
Calorigenic action, 339
Calorigenic effect, 584
cAMP-dependent protein kinase, 128
Cancer
breast, 401
immune responses, 667–68, 671
lymph nodes, 401
prostate, 612
stress, 670
Cannon, Walter, 6
Capacitation, and sperm transport, 627
Capillaries.
See also
Capillary wall
defi
ned, 361, 364t
high altitude and density of, 477t
kidneys, 488–89, 490f
vascular system, 392, 394–99, 403–404
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