752
Index
Alveolar pressure, 446, 450f, 459–60
Alveolar ventilation, 456–57
Alveolar-wall loss, 477
Alveoli, 443, 444, 460–62, 480, 636
Alzheimer’s disease, 167, 246, 675
Amacrine cells, 214
Ambiguous genitalia, 641
Amenorrhea, 578, 640
Amine hormones, 317, 319
Amino acid(s)
absorptive state, 569
binding sites, 67f
digestion and absorption, 537
essential nutrients, 92
metabolism, 89, 90f, 93
neurotransmitters, 167t, 169–70
structure of, 32f
subunits of proteins, 31
Amino acid side chain, 31
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthases, 59
Amino group, 21
Aminopeptidase, 537
Ammonia, 22f, 89–90
Amnesia, 246, 250
Amniocentesis, 631
Amnion, 631
Amniotic cavity, 630–31
Amniotic fl uid, 631
Amniotic sac, 631
AMPA receptors, 169–70
Amphetamines, 241, 244f, 245t
Amphipathic molecules, 25
Amplifi cation cascade, 128
Ampulla, 222, 223f
Amputation, and phantom limb,
201, 206
Amygdala, 249–50
Amylase, 530, 537, 552t
Anabolic steroids, 349–50
Anabolism, 71
Anaerobic conditions, for glycolysis, 79, 83
Analgesia and analgesics, 170, 206
Anaphylaxis, 674
Anatomic dead space, 456
Anatomy
of eyes, 209
of female reproductive system, 615, 641–42
of heart, 365–67, 383
of male reproductive system, 605–606, 614
Andes Mountains, 477
Androgen(s).
See also
Testosterone
defi
ned, 600
female sexual response, 627, 642
major functions of, 318t
mechanisms of action, 322
in women, 626, 627, 642
Androgen-binding protein (ABP), 608
Androgen insensitivity syndrome, 603–604
Andropause, 612–13, 614
Androstenedione, 350
Anemia, 428, 463, 540, 678
Anemic hypoxia, 476
Angina pectoris, 382, 422
Angiogenic factors, 392
Angiogenesis, 392
Angiostatin, 392, 394
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), 508
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors,
420t, 509
Angiotensinogen, 508
Angiotensin II
arteriolar control, 391
blood pressure, 509
functions of, 319t
lungs, 478
mechanisms of action, 322
sodium reabsorption, 508, 509
thirst, 512
Anions, 21
Anorexia nervosa, 589–90, 640
Antagonist(s), 122t, 123, 166, 278
Antagonistic muscles, 278
Anterior pituitary gland
control system involving hypothalamus and,
330–31
feedback control of, 335–36
hormone production by, 319t
pregnancy, 633t
Anterograde amnesia, 246, 249
Anterograde movement, and axonal transport, 139
Anterolateral pathway, 206, 207f
Antibiotics, 672, 694
Antibodies, 658, 664–66, 677t
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
(ADCC), 666, 668
Antibody-mediated immune responses, 658, 663–67
Anticlotting systems, 435–37
Anticoagulants, 436t
Anticodon, 59
Antidepressant drugs, 243
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), 319t, 331, 503
Antigen, 655
Antigen binding site, 658
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs), 660, 676t
Antigen recognition, 663
Anti-infl ammatory drugs, 454
Antiport, 107
Antithrombin III, 436
Antrum, 545, 617
Anus, 557
Aorta, 361
Aortic arch baroreceptor, 408
Aortic bodies, 470
Aortic valves, 366
Aphasias, 247–48
Apneustic center, 470
Apoptosis, 142, 502
Appendicitis, 692
Appendix, 556, 691
Aquaporins, 108
Aqueous humor, 209
Arachidonic acid, 131–33, 134t
Arachnoid mater, 185
Area postrema, 559
Aristotle, 6
Aromatase, 600
Arrhythmias, 513
Arterial baroreceptor(s), 408–409, 417
Arterial baroreceptor refl ex, 409
Arterial blood pressure.
See also
Hypertension
blood volume, 410–11, 412
exercise, 416, 417
role in vascular system, 385–88
Arteries, 361, 384–88, 403
Arterioles
autonomic nervous system, 184t
defi
ned, 361, 364t
roles in vascular system, 388–92, 393t, 403
Arteriosclerosis, 386
Arthritis, 343
Artifi cial pacemaker, 371
Ascending limb, 487, 515t
Ascending pathways, 199–200
Aspartate, 169
Aspiration, 543, 544f
Aspirin, 132f, 133, 436–37, 594
Association cortex, 200–201, 202
Asthma, 132f, 454, 675–76
Astigmatism, 211
Astrocyte, 141
Atelectasis, 688
Atherosclerosis, 344, 422, 580
Atmospheric pressure, 446
Atom(s), 19–20
Atomic nucleus, 19
Atomic number, 19
Atomic weight, 19–20
ATP.
See
Adenosine triphosphate
Atresia, 618
Atria, 364t
Atrial excitation, 368
Atrial fi brillation, 377
Atrial muscle, 381t
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), 318t, 391,
509–10
Atriopeptin, 318t
Atrioventricular (AV) node, 368, 381t
Atrioventricular (AV) valves, 365
Atrium, 361
Atrophy, 277
Atropine, 167, 266
Attention, and memory, 246.
See also
Selective
attention
Attention defi cit hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD), 239
Auditory cortex, 200
Autism, 308
Autocrine agents, 12
Autoimmune diseases, 342, 675, 676t
Autoimmune thyroiditis, 340
Automatic electronic defi brillators (AEDs), 422
Automaticity, of SA node, 370
Autonomic ganglion, 180
Autonomic nervous system, 178, 180–85, 187, 381t
Autonomic postganglionic neurons, 391
Autoreceptors, 165
Autotransfusion, 413
AV conduction disorders, 371
Axo-axonic synapse, 164
Axon, 138
Axonal regeneration, 143
Axonal transport, 139, 140f
Axon hillock, 138
Axon terminal, 138
B
Bacteria
antibody-mediated immune response, 663–67
defi
ned, 647
digestion, 556–57
infections, 650t, 663–67, 693
nonspecifi
c infl
ammatory
response, 650t
Balance, 227, 310, 312
Baldness, male pattern, 612
Baroreceptor, 510–11
Baroreceptor refl exes, 408–10, 412, 421
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