751
Acrosome, 608
Acrosome reaction, 627
Actin
cytoskeleton, 53
skeletal muscle contraction,
259, 260
structure of skeletal muscle, 257
structure of smooth muscle, 284
Action potential
cardiac muscle cells, 291, 369
defi
ned, 149
resting membrane potential, 149, 151–57
skeletal muscle contraction, 267t, 270, 291f
spontaneous electrical activity in smooth muscle
cells, 287, 288f
Action potential propagation, 155
Adrenalectomy, 345
Adrenal gland, 317
Adrenal insuffi ciency, 344
Adrenal medulla, 182, 317, 318t
Adrenergic fi bers, 168
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
anterior pituitary, 331, 332, 333
congenital adrenal
hyperplasia, 641
feedback control of, 335
functions of, 319t
parturition, 636
stress, 342, 343
Aerobic conditions
glycolysis, 79, 83
Krebs cycle, 81
afferent neurons, 139–40
Allosteric modulation, 63t, 69–70
Allosteric proteins, 69
Alpha-adrenergic receptors, 168
Alpha cells (A cells), 572
Alpha-gamma coactivation, 301f, 302–303
Alpha-glycerol phosphate, 569
Alpha helix, 34
Alpha-ketoacids, 569
Alpha motor neurons, 303
Alpha rhythms, 234
Altered states, of consciousness, 242–45
Alternate complement pathway, 653
Altitude
acclimatization, 13, 477–78
hypoxic hypoxia, 476
Altitude sickness, 477
Alveolar dead space, 457
Index
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