726
Glossary
estrogen
(ES-troh-jen) group of steroid hormones
that have effects similar to estradiol on female
reproductive tract
estrogen priming
increase in responsiveness
to progesterone caused by prior exposure to
estrogen (e.g., in the uterus)
estrone
estrogen that is less prominent than
estradiol
eukaryotic cell
cell containing a membrane-
enclosed nucleus with genetic material; plant
and animal cells
eustachian tube
(yoo-STAY-shee-an) duct
connecting the middle ear with the
nasopharynx
evaporation
the loss of body water by
perspiration, resulting in cooling
excitability
ability to produce electric signals
excitable membrane
membrane capable of
producing action potentials
excitation-contraction coupling
in muscle
fi bers, mechanism linking plasma membrane
stimulation with cross-bridge force generation
excitatory amino acid
amino acid that acts as an
excitatory (depolarizing) neurotransmitter in
the nervous system
excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
(post-
sin-NAP-tic) depolarizing graded potential in
postsynaptic neuron in response to activation
of excitatory synapse
excitatory synapse
(SIN-apse) synapse that, when
activated, increases likelihood that postsynaptic
neuron will undergo action potentials or
increases frequency of existing action potentials
excitotoxicity
(eggs-SY-toe-tocks-ih-city)
spreading damage to brain cells due to release
of glutamate from ruptured neurons
excretion
elimination of a substance from the
body
exocrine gland
(EX-oh-krin) cluster of epithelial
cells specialized for secretion and having ducts
that lead to an epithelial surface
exocytosis
(ex-oh-sy-TOH-sis) process in
which intracellular vesicle fuses with plasma
membrane, the vesicle opens, and its
contents are liberated into the extracellular
fl uid
exon
(EX-on) DNA gene region containing code
words for a part of the amino acid sequence of
a protein
expiration
(ex-pur-A-shun) movement of air out
of lungs
expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
(ex-PY-ruh-
tor-ee) volume of air that can be exhaled by
maximal contraction of expiratory muscles after
normal resting expiration
extension
straightening a joint
extensor muscle
muscle whose activity straightens
a joint
external anal sphincter
ring of skeletal muscle
around lower end of rectum
external auditory canal
outer canal of the
ear between the pinna and the tympanic
membrane
external environment
environment surrounding
external surface of an organism
external genitalia
(jen-ih-TAH-lee-ah) (female)
mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris,
vestibule of the vagina, and vestibular glands;
(male) penis and scrotum
external urethral sphincter
ring of skeletal
muscle that surrounds the urethra at base of
bladder
external work
movement of external objects by
skeletal muscle contraction
extracellular fl
uid
fl uid outside cell; interstitial
fl uid and plasma
extracellular matrix
(MAY-trix) a complex
consisting of a mixture of proteins (and,
in some cases, minerals) interspersed with
extracellular fl uid
extrafusal fi
ber
primary muscle fi ber in skeletal
muscle, as opposed to modifi ed (intrafusal)
fi ber in muscle spindle
extrapyramidal system
see
brainstem pathway
extrinsic
(ex-TRIN-sik) coming from outside
extrinsic pathway
formation of fi brin clots
by pathway using tissue factor on cells in
interstitium; once activated, it also recruits the
intrinsic clotting pathway beyond factor XII
F
facilitated diffusion
(fah-SIL-ih-tay-ted) system
using a transporter to move molecules from
high to low concentration across a membrane;
energy not required
fallopian tube
one of two tubes that carries egg
from ovary to uterus
fast fi
ber
skeletal muscle fi ber that contains
myosin having high ATPase activity
fast-glycolytic fi
ber
type of skeletal muscle fi ber
that has high intrinsic contraction speed and
abundant capacity for production of ATP by
anaerobic glycolysis
fast-oxidative-glycolytic fi
ber
type of
skeletal muscle fi ber that has high intrinsic
contraction speed and abundant capacity
for production of ATP by aerobic oxidative
phosphorylation
fat mobilization
increased breakdown of
triglycerides and release of glycerol and fatty
acids into blood
fat-soluble vitamin
see
vitamin
fatty acid
carbon chain with carboxyl group at
one end through which chain can be linked
to glycerol to form triglyceride;
see also
polyunsaturated fatty acid, saturated fatty acid,
unsaturated fatty acid
Fc
“stem” part of antibody
feces
(FEE-sees) material expelled from large
intestine during defecation
feedback
see
negative feedback, positive feedback
feedforward
aspect of some control systems
that allows system to anticipate changes in a
regulated variable
female external genitalia
mons pubis, labia
majora, labia minora, clitoris, outer vagina, and
its glands
female internal genitalia
(jen-ih-TALE-ee-ah)
ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina
ferritin
(FAIR-ih-tin) iron-binding protein that
stores iron in body
fertilization
union of sperm and egg
fetal hemoglobin
oxygen-carrying molecule with
high oxygen affi nity
fetus
(FEE-tus) human being from third month of
intrauterine life until birth
fever
increased body temperature due to setting
of “thermostat” of temperature-regulating
mechanisms at higher-than-normal level
ber
see
muscle fi ber, nerve fi ber
brin
(FY-brin) protein polymer resulting from
enzymatic cleavage of fi brinogen; can turn
blood into gel (clot)
brinogen
(fy-BRIN-oh-jen) plasma protein
precursor of fi brin
brinolytic system
(fye-brin-oh-LIT-ik) cascade
of plasma enzymes that breaks down clots; also
called thrombolytic system
ght-or-fl
ight response
activation of sympathetic
nervous system during stress
ltered load
amount of any substance fi ltered
from renal glomerular capillaries into
Bowman’s capsule
ltration
movement of essentially protein-free
plasma out across capillary walls due to a
pressure gradient across the wall
mbria
(FIM-bree-ah) opening of the fallopian
tube; it has fi ngerlike projections lined with
ciliated epithelium through which the ovulated
egg passes into the fallopian tube
rst messenger
extracellular chemical messenger
5
`
-reductase
intracellular enzyme that converts
testosterone to dihydrotestosterone
atus
(FLAY-tus) intestinal gas expelled through
anus
avine adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
coenzyme
derived from the B vitamin ribofl avin; transfers
hydrogen from one substrate to another
exion
(FLEK-shun) bending a joint
ow autoregulation
ability of individual
arterioles to alter their resistance in response
to changing blood pressure so that relatively
constant blood fl ow is maintained
ow-induced arterial vasodilation
mechanism
for relaxing arteriolar smooth muscles that
involves detection of shear stress by endothelial
cells, which release paracrine inhibitors of
contraction
uid endocytosis
invagination of a plasma
membrane by which a cell can engulf
extracellular fl uid
uid-mosaic model
(moh-ZAY-ik) cell
membrane structure consists of proteins
embedded in bimolecular lipid that has
the physical properties of a fl uid, allowing
membrane proteins to move laterally within it
ux
amount of a substance crossing a surface in a
unit of time;
see also
net fl ux
folic acid
(FOH-lik) vitamin of B-complex group;
essential for formation of nucleotide thiamine
follicle
(FOL-ih-kel) egg and its encasing
follicular, granulosa, and theca cells at all stages
prior to ovulation; also called
ovarian follicle
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
protein
hormone secreted by anterior pituitary in
males and females that acts on gonads; a
gonadotropin
follicular phase
(fuh-LIK-you-lar) that portion of
menstrual cycle during which follicle and egg
develop to maturity prior to ovulation
food-induced thermogenesis
the creation
of heat within the body following a meal,
particularly one rich in protein; at least part
of the heat is generated secondarily to the
increased activity of the gastrointestinal tract
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