Glossary
721
cardiac muscle
heart muscle
cardiac output
blood volume pumped by each
ventricle per minute (not total output pumped
by both ventricles)
cardiovascular center
neuron cluster in brainstem
medulla oblongata that serves as a major
integrating center for refl exes affecting heart
and blood vessels
cardiovascular system
heart and blood vessels
carotid
(kuh-RAH-tid) pertaining to two major
arteries (carotid arteries) in neck that convey
blood to head
carotid body chemoreceptor
chemoreceptor
near main branching of carotid artery; sensitive
to blood O
2
pressure and H
+
concentration
carotid sinus
region of internal carotid artery
just above main carotid branching; location of
carotid baroreceptors
carotid sinus baroreceptor
see
arterial
baroreceptor
carrier
see
transporter
catabolism
(kuh-TAB-oh-lizm) cellular
breakdown of organic molecules
catalyst
(KAT-ah-list) substance that accelerates
chemical reactions but does not itself undergo
any net chemical change during the reaction
catch-up growth
a period of rapid growth
during which a child attains his or her
predicted height for a given age after a
temporary period of slow growth due to
illness or malnourishment
catecholamine
(kat-eh-COLE-ah-meen)
dopamine, epinephrine, or norepinephrine, all
of which have similar chemical structures
cation
(KAT-eye-on) ion having net positive
charge;
compare
anion
caveolae
(kav-ee-OH-lee) small invaginations of
the plasma membrane that pinch off and form
endocytotic vesicles that deliver their contents
directly to the cytosol
cecum
(SEE-come) dilated pouch at beginning of
large intestine into which the ileum, colon, and
appendix open
cell body
in cells with long extensions, the part
that contains the nucleus
cell differentiation
see
differentiation
cell organelle
(or-guh-NEL) membrane-bound
compartment, nonmembranous particle, or
fi lament that performs specialized functions
in cell
center of gravity
point in a body at which body
mass is in perfect balance; if the body were
suspended from a string attached to this point,
there would be no movement
central chemoreceptor
receptor in brainstem
medulla oblongata that responds to H
+
concentration changes of brain extracellular
fl uid
central command fatigue
muscle fatigue due to
failure of appropriate regions of cerebral cortex
to excite motor neurons
central nervous system (CNS)
brain plus spinal
cord
central sulcus
a deep infolding on each half of
the brain that separates the parietal and central
lobes
central thermoreceptor
temperature receptor in
hypothalamus, spinal cord, abdominal organ,
or other internal location
centriole
(SEN-tree-ole) small cytoplasmic
body having nine fused sets of microtubules;
participates in nuclear and cell division
centrosome
region of cell cytoplasm in which
microtubule formation and elongation occur,
particularly during cell division
cephalic phase
(seh-FAL-ik) (of gastrointestinal
control) initiation of the neural and hormonal
refl exes regulating gastrointestinal functions
by stimulation of receptors in head, that is,
cephalic receptors—sight, smell, taste, and
chewing—as well as by emotional states
cerebellum
(ser-ah-BEL-um) brain subdivision
lying behind forebrain and above brainstem;
deals with muscle movement control
cerebral cortex
(SER-ah-brul or sah-REE-brul)
cellular layer covering the cerebrum
cerebral hemisphere
either left or right half of
the cerebral cortex
cerebral ventricle
one of four interconnected
spaces in the brain; fi lled with cerebrospinal
fl uid
cerebrospinal fl
uid (CSF)
(sah-ree-broh-SPY-
nal) fl uid that fi lls cerebral ventricles and the
subarachnoid space surrounding brain and
spinal cord
cerebrum
(SER-ah-brum or sah-REE-brum) part
of the brain that, with diencephalon, forms the
forebrain
cervix
(SIR-vix) lower portion of uterus; cervical
opening connects uterine and vaginal lumens
cGMP-dependent protein kinase
(KY-nase)
see
cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase
channel
small passage in plasma membrane
formed by integral membrane proteins
and through which certain small-diameter
molecules and ions can diffuse;
see also
ligand-
gated channel, mechanically gated channel,
voltage-gated channel
channel gating
process of opening and closing
ion channels
chemical element
specifi c type of atom
chemical equilibrium
state when rates of
forward and reverse components of a
chemical reaction are equal, and no net
change in reactant or product concentration
occurs
chemical reaction
breaking of some chemical
bonds and formation of new ones, which
changes one type of molecule to another;
see
also
irreversible reaction, reversible reaction
chemical specifi
city
see
specifi city
chemical synapse
(SIN-apse) synapse at which
neurotransmitters released by one neuron
diffuse across an extracellular gap to infl uence
a second neuron’s activity
chemiosmotic hypothesis
the proposed
mechanism by which ATP is formed during
oxidative phosphorylation; the hypothesis
proposes that the movement of protons
across mitochondrial inner membranes is
coupled with ATP production
chemoattractant
any mediator that causes
chemotaxis; also called
chemotaxin
chemokine
any cytokine that functions as a
chemoattractant
chemoreceptor
afferent nerve ending (or cell
associated with it) sensitive to concentrations
of certain chemicals
chemotaxin
(kee-moh-TAX-in)
see
chemoattractant
chemotaxis
(kee-moh-TAX-iss) movement of
cells, particularly phagocytes, in a specifi c
direction in response to a chemical stimulus
chief cell
gastric gland cell that secretes
pepsinogen, precursor of pepsin
cholecalciferol (vitamin D
3
)
(kohl-ee-kal-SIF-
er-ol) animal vitamin D
cholecystokinin (CCK)
(koh-lee-sis-toh-KY-
nin) peptide hormone secreted by duodenum
that regulates gastric motility and secretion,
gallbladder contraction, and pancreatic enzyme
secretion; possible satiety signal
cholesterol
particular steroid molecule; precursor
of steroid hormones and bile salts and a
component of plasma membranes
cholesterol esterase
enzyme that removes a fatty
acid from a molecule of esterifi ed cholesterol;
required for the production of free cholesterol
in steroidogenic glands
cholinergic
(koh-lin-ER-jik) pertaining to
acetylcholine; a compound that acts like
acetylcholine
chondrocyte
(KON-droh-site) cell types that
form new cartilage
chordae tendineae
(KORE-day TEN-den-ay)
strong, fi brous cords that connect papillary
muscles to the edges of atrioventricular valves;
they prevent backward fl ow of blood during
ventricular systole
chorion
outermost fetal membrane derived from
trophoblast cells; becomes part of the placenta
chorionic villi
fi ngerlike projections of the
trophoblast cells extending from the chorion
into the endometrium of the uterus
choroid
(KORE-oyd) pigmented layer of eye that
lies next to retina
choroid plexus
highly vascular epithelial
structure lining portions of cerebral ventricles;
responsible for much of cerebrospinal fl uid
formation
chromatid
(KROM-ah-tid) one of two identical
strands of chromatin resulting from DNA
duplication during mitosis or meiosis
chromatin
(KROM-ih-tin) combination of DNA
and nuclear proteins; principal component of
chromosomes
chromophore
retinal light-sensitive component of
a photopigment
chromosome
highly coiled, condensed form
of chromatin formed in cell nucleus during
mitosis and meiosis
chronic
(KRON-ik) persisting over a long time;
compare
acute
chylomicron
(kye-loh-MY-kron) small droplet
consisting of lipids and protein released from
intestinal epithelial cells into the lacteals during
fat absorption
chyme
(kyme) solution of partially digested food
in stomach and intestinal lumens
chymotrypsin
enzyme secreted by exocrine
pancreas; breaks certain peptide bonds in
proteins and polypeptides
cilia
(SIL-ee-ah) hairlike projections from
specialized epithelial cells that sweep back and
forth in a synchronized way to propel material
along epithelial surface
ciliary muscle
involved in movement and shape of
the lens during accommodation
circadian rhythm
(sir-KAY-dee-an) occurring in
an approximately 24 h cycle
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