Answers to Test & Quantitative and Thought Questions
IgA antibodies act in this way.
Antibiotics are bactericidal. They are sometimes
given in viral diseases to eliminate or prevent
secondary infections caused by bacteria, however.
For example, rheumatoid arthritis and inﬂ
bowel disease are not associated with infection.
Some lymphocytes are B cells.
Edema is a consequence of inﬂ ammation and has no
known adaptive value.
These are the primary lymphoid organs. An example
of a secondary organ is a lymph node.
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Both would be impaired because T cells would not
differentiate. The absence of cytotoxic T cells would
eliminate responses mediated by these cells. The
absence of helper T cells would impair antibody-
mediated responses because most B cells require
cytokines from helper T cells to become activated.
Neutrophil deﬁ ciency would impair nonspeciﬁ c
inﬂ ammatory responses to bacteria. Monocyte
deﬁ ciency, by causing macrophage deﬁ ciency, would
impair both nonspeciﬁ c inﬂ ammation and speciﬁ c
The drug might reduce but would not eliminate the
action of complement, because this system destroys
cells directly (via the membrane attack complex) as
well as by facilitating phagocytosis.
Antibodies would bind normally to antigen but might
not be able to activate complement, act as opsonins,
or recruit NK cells in ADCC. The reason for these
defects is that the sites to which complement C1,
phagocytes, and NK cells bind are all located in the Fc
portion of antibodies.
They do develop fever, although often not to the same
degree as normal. They can do so because IL-1 and
other cytokines secreted by macrophages cause fever,
whereas the defect in AIDS is failure of helper T cell