chemicals that result in inﬂ ammation (see Figure 19–1 and
Figure 7–32), causing the muscles to swell and forcing the
eyeball forward. Sometimes, particular muscles of the eye are
more affected than others, which explains the double vision of
our patient when she gazes to one side.
The most important component of the treatment is to lower
the thyroid hormone levels. There are three general approaches
to accomplish this. Removal of the thyroid gland is the most
obvious, but currently the least frequently used approach. Re-
moving a large, hyperactive thyroid gland has deﬁ
risks and is usually not performed unless absolutely necessary.
can be used be-
cause they block the synthesis of thyroid hormone by reducing
the oxidation and organiﬁ
cation of iodide (see Figure 11–22).
Although these drugs are effective in some patients, they some-
times lose effectiveness and do not provide a deﬁ nitive cure.
In the United States, a common approach is a more
permanent, nonsurgical treatment. This involves the partial
destruction of the thyroid gland with a high dose of orally
Remember that iodide is a
critical component of thyroid hormone (see Figure 11–22),
and the thyroid gland has a mechanism to trap iodide by sec-
ondary active transport from the blood into the follicular cell.
Radioactive iodide administered to the patient is trapped by
the thyroid; the local emission of radioactive decay destroys
most of the thyroid gland over time. However, the procedure
does not work equally well in all people. In fact, sometimes
patients have so much of their thyroid gland destroyed that
they become hypothyroid. Such people must take T
the rest of their lives to maintain thyroid hormones in the
In the short term, while waiting for the treatments to take
effect, patients beneﬁ t from treatment with beta-adrenergic
receptor blockers (see Table 12–9) to reduce the effects of in-
creased sensitivity to circulating catecholamines. This often
helps control the palpitations and increased heart rate, as
well as some of the other symptoms such as nervousness and
tremors. Because proptosis is not caused by the increase in
, its treatment can be accomplished, if necessary, with anti-
inﬂ ammatory drugs, such as glucocorticoids, or surgery or ra-
diation therapy of the eye muscles.
With adequate treatment, patients generally get better
over time with most, if not all, of the symptoms resolving.
Our patient was treated with radioactive iodide, and all of her
symptoms slowly resolved over several months.
A Man with Chest Pain After
a Long Airplane Flight
A 50-year-old, obese man has just returned from vacationing
in Hawaii. He took an 8-h ﬂ ight during which he sat by the
window and did not leave his seat. In the taxi on the way home
from the airport, he starts to feel chest pain, and has shortness
of breath, increased respiratory rate, and nausea. Thinking he
is having a heart attack (
), he asks the
taxi driver to take him to the hospital emergency room.
An examination of the patient at the hospital indicates that
he has dull, aching chest pain, is clearly upset and anxious,
short of breath, and overweight. He is 68 in (173 cm) tall
and weighs 300 lbs (136 kg). The emergency room physician
immediately orders an electrocardiogram (ECG), primarily to
rule out a heart attack. The ECG shows an increased heart
rate (100 beats per min), but does not show changes consistent
with a heart attack or with left heart failure.
ect and Review #7
What are the main factors that control heart rate
(see Figure 12–23)? Might any of them explain the
elevated heart rate in our patient?
How might damage to the heart be detected in
an ECG? (See Figures 12–15 and 12–16 for a general
discussion of ECG.)
A chest x-ray is performed in an attempt to determine the cause
of the patient’s chest pain and shortness of breath. The results
indicate no abnormalities such as pneumonia or collapse of
lung lobes (
Based on the patient’s history and symptoms, the physician
obtains a sample of the patient’s arterial blood in order to
measure the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, hy-
Blood Gas, Bicarbonate, and
Hemoglobin Results While Patient
Breathes Room Air
A rterial pH