Defense Mechanisms of the Body
681
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What are the major cells of the immune system and their
general functions?
2. Describe the major anatomical and biochemical barriers to
infection.
3. Name the three cell types that function as phagocytes.
4. List the sequence of events in an infl ammatory response and
describe each step.
5. Name the sources of the major infl
ammatory mediators.
6. What triggers the alternate pathway for complement activation?
What roles does complement play in infl ammation and cell
killing?
7. Describe the antiviral role of interferon.
8. Name the lymphoid organs. Contrast the functions of the
bone marrow and thymus with those of the secondary
lymphoid organs.
9. Name the various populations and subpopulations of
lymphocytes and discuss their roles in specifi c immune responses.
10. Contrast the major targets of antibody-mediated responses and
responses mediated by cytotoxic T cells and NK cells.
11. How do the Fc and combining-site portions of antibodies
differ?
12. What are the differences between B-cell receptors and T-cell
receptors? Between cytotoxic T-cell receptors and helper T-cell
receptors?
13. Compare and contrast antigen presentation to helper T cells
and cytotoxic T cells.
14. Compare and contrast cytotoxic T cells and NK cells.
15. What two processes contribute to immune tolerance?
16. Diagram the sequence of events in an antibody-mediated
response, including the role of helper T cells, interleukin 1, and
interleukin 2.
17. Contrast the general functions of the different antibody
classes.
18. How is complement activation triggered in the classical
complement pathway, and how does complement “know” what
cells to attack?
19. Name two ways in which the presence of antibodies enhances
phagocytosis.
20. How do NK cells “know” which cells to attack in ADCC?
21. Diagram the sequence of events by which a virus-infected cell
is attacked and destroyed by cytotoxic T cells. Include the
roles of cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, interleukin 1, and
interleukin 2.
22. Contrast the extracellular and intracellular phases of immune
responses to viruses, discussing the role of interferon.
23. List the systemic responses to infection or injury and the
mediators responsible for them.
24. What factors infl uence the body’s resistance to infection?
25. What is the major defect in AIDS, and what causes it?
26. What is the major cell type involved in graft rejection?
27. Diagram the sequences of events in immediate hypersensitivity.
CLINICAL TERMS
(Because of the subject matter of this chapter, it is diffi
cult to
distinguish between “physiological” key terms and “clinical” terms.
This list is limited largely to disease-producing agents and disease
processes.)
acquired immune defi ciency
syndrome (AIDS)
671
allergen
673
allergy (hypersensitivity)
673
Alzheimer’s disease
675
anaphylaxis
674
antibiotic
672
asthma
675
autoimmune disease
675
bacteria
647
butterfl y rash
678
chronic infl
ammatory
disease
675
combined
immunodefi ciency
671
cross-matching
673
cyclosporin
672
delayed hypersensitivity
674
erythromycin
672
graft rejection
672
HAART
671
hemolytic anemia
678
hemolytic disease of the
newborn
673
human immunodefi ciency virus
(HIV)
671
hydralazine
678
IgE-mediated
hypersensitivity
674
immediate hypersensitivity
674
immune-complex
hypersensitivity
674
infl ammatory bowel
disease
675
Kaposi’s sarcoma
671
late-phase reaction
674
microbe
646
multiple sclerosis
675
myasthenia gravis
675
nephritis
678
oncogene
662
penicillin
672
rheumatoid arthritis
675
septic shock
675
systemic lupus
erythematosus (SLE)
678
thrombocytopenia
678
transfusion reaction
672
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
675
vaccine
666
virus
647
Chapter 18 Test Questions
(Answers appear in Appendix A.)
1. Which of the following is an opsonin?
a. IL-2
b. C1 protein
c. C3b protein
d. C-reactive protein
e. membrane attack complex
2. Which are important in nonspecifi c immune defenses?
a. interferons
b. clonal inactivation
c. lymphocyte activation
d. secretion of antibodies from plasma cells
e. class 1 MHC proteins
3. A second exposure to a given foreign antigen elicits a rapid and
pronounced immune response because
a. passive immunity occurs after the fi rst exposure.
b. some B cells differentiate into memory B cells after the fi rst
exposure.
c. there are a greater number of antigen-presenting cells
available due to the earlier exposure.
d. the array of class II MHC proteins expressed by antigen-
presenting cells is permanently altered by the fi rst exposure.
e. Both a and b are correct.
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