42
42
chapter
3
Cellular
Structure,
Proteins, and
Metabolism
S
ECTION
A
Cell Structure
Microscopic Observations of Cells
Membranes
Membrane Structure
Membrane Junctions
Cell Organelles
Nucleus
Ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi Apparatus
Endosomes
Mitochondria
Lysosomes
Peroxisomes
Vaults
Cytoskeleton
S
ECTION
B
Proteins
Genetic Code
Protein Synthesis
Transcription: mRNA Synthesis
Translation: Polypeptide Synthesis
Regulation of Protein Synthesis
Mutation
Protein Degradation
Protein Secretion
S
ECTION
C
Protein-Binding Sites
Binding Site Characteristics
Chemical Specifi
city
Affi
nity
Saturation
Competition
Regulation of Binding Site
Characteristics
Allosteric Modulation
Covalent Modulation
S
ECTION
D
Enzymes and Chemical Energy
Chemical Reactions
Determinants of Reaction Rates
Reversible and Irreversible Reactions
Law of Mass Action
Enzymes
Cofactors
Regulation of Enzyme-Mediated
Reactions
Substrate Concentration
Enzyme Concentration
Enzyme Activity
Multienzyme Reactions
S
ECTION
E
Metabolic Pathways
Cellular Energy Transfer
Glycolysis
Krebs Cycle
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Reactive Oxygen Species
Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein
Metabolism
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Fat Metabolism
Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism
Fuel Metabolism Summary
Essential Nutrients
Vitamins
Color enhanced electron
microscopic image of a
liver cell.
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