Reproduction
643
SECTION C KEY TERMS
SECTION C REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Draw the female reproductive tract.
2. Describe the various stages from oogonium to mature ovum.
3. Describe the progression from a primordial follicle to a
dominant follicle.
4. Name three hormones produced by the ovaries and name the
cells that produce them.
5. Diagram the changes in plasma concentrations of estrogen,
progesterone, LH, and FSH during the menstrual cycle.
6. What are the analogies between the granulosa cells and the
Sertoli cells and between the theca cells and the Leydig cells?
7. List the effects of FSH and LH on the follicle.
8. Describe the effects of estrogen and inhibin on gonadotropin
secretion during the early, middle, and late follicular phases.
9. List the effects of the LH surge on the egg and the follicle.
10. What are the effects of the sex steroids and inhibin on
gonadotropin secretion during the luteal phase?
11. Describe the hormonal control of the corpus luteum and the
changes that occur in the corpus luteum in a nonpregnant
cycle and in a cycle when pregnancy occurs.
12. What happens to the sex steroids and the gonadotropins as the
corpus luteum degenerates?
13. Compare the phases of the menstrual cycle according to
uterine and ovarian events.
14. Describe the effects of estrogen and progesterone on the
endometrium, cervical mucus, and myometrium.
15. Describe the uterine events associated with menstruation.
16. List the effects of estrogen on the accessory sex organs and
secondary sex characteristics.
17. List the effects of progesterone on the breasts, cervical mucus,
vaginal epithelium, and body temperature.
18. What are the sources and effects of androgens in women?
19. How does the egg get from the ovary to a fallopian tube?
20. Where does fertilization normally occur?
21. Describe the events that occur during fertilization.
22. How many days after ovulation does implantation occur, and
in what stage is the conceptus at that time?
23. Describe the structure of the placenta and the pathways for
exchange between maternal and fetal blood.
acrosome reaction
627
afterbirth
634
alveolus
636
amnion
631
amniotic cavity
630
amniotic fl uid
631
amniotic sac
631
antrum
617
atresia
618
blastocyst
629
block to polyspermy
628
capacitation
627
cervix
615
chorion
630
chorionic villi
630
cleavage
628
clitoris
615
colostrum
637
conceptus
628
congenital
632
corpus luteum
619
cortical reaction
628
cumulus oophorous
618
dominant follicle
618
dopamine
637
egg
615
embryo
629
endometrium
624
estrogen priming
625
fallopian tube
615
female external genitalia
615
female internal genitalia
615
fertilization
627
fetus
629
fi mbria
615
follicle
617
follicular phase
619
fraternal twins
619
graafi an follicle
618
granulosa cell
617
human chorionic gonadotropin
(hCG)
632
human placental lactogen
633
hymen
615
implantation
629
inner cell mass
629
lactation
636
LH surge
619
luteal phase
619
mammary gland
636
meiotic arrest
616
menarche
627
menopause
639
menstrual cycle
615
menstrual phase
624
menstruation
615
milk ejection refl ex
637
myoepithelial cell
636
myometrium
624
oogenesis
615
oogonium
615
ovulation
615
oxytocin
634
parturition
634
perimenopause
639
placenta
630
primary oocyte
615
primordial follicle
617
prolactin-releasing factor
(PRF)
637
proliferative phase
624
relaxin
634
secondary oocyte
616
secretory phase
624
sinus
630
theca
617
totipotent
629
trophoblast
629
umbilical artery
630
umbilical cord
630
umbilical vein
630
uterus
615
vagina
615
vulva
615
zona pellucida
617
zygote
628
SECTION C CLINICAL TERMS
abortifacient
638
ambiguous genitalia
641
amenorrhea
640
amniocentesis
631
anorexia nervosa
640
breech presentation
634
cesarian section
634
chorionic villus sampling
631
congenital adrenal
hyperplasia
640
contraceptive
638
Depo-Provera
®
638
Down syndrome
632
dysmenorrhea
624
eclampsia
633
ectopic pregnancy
628
galactorrhea
640
hot fl
ash
640
hyperprolactinemia
640
intrauterine device (IUD)
638
in vitro fertilization
639
Lunelle
®
638
miscarriage
632
oral contraceptive
638
osteoporosis
640
precocious puberty
641
preeclampsia
633
pregnancy sickness
634
premenstrual dysphoric disorder
(PMDD)
625
premenstrual syndrome
(PMS)
625
premenstrual tension
625
rhythm method
639
RU 486 (mifepristone)
638
selective estrogen receptor
modulators (SERMs)
640
sexually transmitted disease
(STD)
638
tamoxifen
640
teratogen
632
toxemia of pregnancy
633
virilism
626
virilization
641
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