Regulation of Organic Metabolism and Energy Balance
597
SECTION B KEY TERMS
SECTION B REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. State the formula relating total energy expenditure, heat
produced, external work, and energy storage.
2. What two hormones alter the basal metabolic rate?
3. State the equation for total-body energy balance. Describe the
three possible states of balance with regard to energy storage.
4. What happens to the basal metabolic rate after a person has
either lost or gained weight?
5. List fi ve satiety signals.
6. List three benefi cial effects of exercise in a weight-loss
program.
7. Compare and contrast the four mechanisms for heat loss.
8. Describe the control of skin blood vessels during exposure to
cold or heat.
9. With a diagram, summarize the refl ex responses to heat or
cold. What are the dominant mechanisms for temperature
regulation in the thermoneutral zone and in temperatures
below and above this range?
10. What changes are exhibited by a heat-acclimatized person?
11. Summarize the sequence of events leading to a fever and
contrast this to the sequence leading to hyperthermia during
exercise.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
584
body mass index (BMI)
588
brown adipose tissue
592
calorie
584
calorigenic effect
584
central thermoreceptor
591
conduction
591
convection
591
core body temperature
590
endogenous cryogen
595
endogenous pyrogen (EP)
594
evaporation
591
external work
584
food-induced thermogenesis
585
ghrelin
587
homeothermic
590
insensible water loss
593
interleukin 1 (IL-1)
594
interleukin 6 (IL-6)
594
internal work
584
kilocalorie (kcal)
584
leptin
586
metabolic rate
584
neuropeptide Y
586
nonshivering thermogenesis
592
peripheral thermoreceptor
591
radiation
591
satiety signal
587
shivering thermogenesis
592
sweat gland
593
thermoneutral zone
593
thrifty gene
589
total energy expenditure
584
SECTION B CLINICAL TERMS
anorexia nervosa
589
aspirin
594
bulimia nervosa
589
fever
594
heat exhaustion
596
heat stroke
596
hyperthermia
595
obesity
588
overweight
588
Chapter 16 Test Questions
(Answers appear in Appendix A.)
1. Which is
incorrect?
a. Fatty acids can be converted into glucose in the liver.
b. Glucose can be converted into fatty acids in adipose cells.
c. Certain amino acids can be converted into glucose by the
liver.
d. Triglycerides are absorbed from the GI tract in the form of
chylomicrons.
e. The absorptive state is characterized by ingested nutrients
entering the blood from the GI tract.
2. During the postabsorptive state, epinephrine stimulates
breakdown of adipose triglycerides by
a. inhibiting lipoprotein lipase.
b. stimulating hormone-sensitive lipase.
c. increasing production of glycogen.
d. inhibiting hormone-sensitive lipase.
e. promoting increased adipose ketone production.
3. Which is true of strenuous, prolonged exercise?
a. It results in an increase in plasma glucagon levels.
b. It results in an increase in plasma insulin levels.
c. Plasma glucose levels do not change.
d. Skeletal muscle uptake of glucose is inhibited.
e. Plasma levels of cortisol and growth hormone both decrease.
4. Untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by
a. decreased sensitivity of adipose and skeletal muscle cells to
insulin.
b. higher-than-normal plasma levels of insulin.
c. loss of body fl uid due to increased urine production.
d. age-dependent onset (only occurs in adults).
e. obesity.
5. Which is
not
a function of insulin?
a. to stimulate amino acid transport across cell membranes
b. to inhibit hepatic glucose output
c. to inhibit glucagon secretion
d. to stimulate lipolysis in adipocytes
e. to stimulate glycogen synthase in skeletal muscle
6. The calorigenic effect of thyroid hormones
a. refers to the ability of thyroid hormones to increase the
body’s oxygen consumption.
b. helps maintain body temperature.
c. helps explain why hyperthyroidism is sometimes associated
with symptoms of vitamin defi ciencies.
d. is the most important determinant of basal metabolic rate.
e. All of the above are true.
7. Which of the following mechanisms of heat exchange results
from local air currents?
a. radiation
b. convection
c. conduction
d. evaporation
e. none of the above
True/False
For questions 8–15, answer true or false.
8. Nonshivering thermogenesis occurs outside the thermoneutral
zone.
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