Regulation of Organic Metabolism and Energy Balance
SECTION B KEY TERMS
SECTION B REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. State the formula relating total energy expenditure, heat
produced, external work, and energy storage.
2. What two hormones alter the basal metabolic rate?
3. State the equation for total-body energy balance. Describe the
three possible states of balance with regard to energy storage.
4. What happens to the basal metabolic rate after a person has
either lost or gained weight?
5. List ﬁ ve satiety signals.
6. List three beneﬁ cial effects of exercise in a weight-loss
7. Compare and contrast the four mechanisms for heat loss.
8. Describe the control of skin blood vessels during exposure to
cold or heat.
9. With a diagram, summarize the reﬂ ex responses to heat or
cold. What are the dominant mechanisms for temperature
regulation in the thermoneutral zone and in temperatures
below and above this range?
10. What changes are exhibited by a heat-acclimatized person?
11. Summarize the sequence of events leading to a fever and
contrast this to the sequence leading to hyperthermia during
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
body mass index (BMI)
brown adipose tissue
core body temperature
endogenous pyrogen (EP)
insensible water loss
interleukin 1 (IL-1)
interleukin 6 (IL-6)
total energy expenditure
SECTION B CLINICAL TERMS
Chapter 16 Test Questions
(Answers appear in Appendix A.)
1. Which is
a. Fatty acids can be converted into glucose in the liver.
b. Glucose can be converted into fatty acids in adipose cells.
c. Certain amino acids can be converted into glucose by the
d. Triglycerides are absorbed from the GI tract in the form of
e. The absorptive state is characterized by ingested nutrients
entering the blood from the GI tract.
2. During the postabsorptive state, epinephrine stimulates
breakdown of adipose triglycerides by
a. inhibiting lipoprotein lipase.
b. stimulating hormone-sensitive lipase.
c. increasing production of glycogen.
d. inhibiting hormone-sensitive lipase.
e. promoting increased adipose ketone production.
3. Which is true of strenuous, prolonged exercise?
a. It results in an increase in plasma glucagon levels.
b. It results in an increase in plasma insulin levels.
c. Plasma glucose levels do not change.
d. Skeletal muscle uptake of glucose is inhibited.
e. Plasma levels of cortisol and growth hormone both decrease.
4. Untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by
a. decreased sensitivity of adipose and skeletal muscle cells to
b. higher-than-normal plasma levels of insulin.
c. loss of body ﬂ uid due to increased urine production.
d. age-dependent onset (only occurs in adults).
5. Which is
a function of insulin?
a. to stimulate amino acid transport across cell membranes
b. to inhibit hepatic glucose output
c. to inhibit glucagon secretion
d. to stimulate lipolysis in adipocytes
e. to stimulate glycogen synthase in skeletal muscle
6. The calorigenic effect of thyroid hormones
a. refers to the ability of thyroid hormones to increase the
body’s oxygen consumption.
b. helps maintain body temperature.
c. helps explain why hyperthyroidism is sometimes associated
with symptoms of vitamin deﬁ ciencies.
d. is the most important determinant of basal metabolic rate.
e. All of the above are true.
7. Which of the following mechanisms of heat exchange results
from local air currents?
e. none of the above
For questions 8–15, answer true or false.
8. Nonshivering thermogenesis occurs outside the thermoneutral