528
528
Radiograph of
abdomen with
radioopaque
contrast (barium
enema).
Overview: Functions of the
Gastrointestinal Organs
Structure of the Gastrointestinal
Tract Wall
Digestion and Absorption
Carbohydrate
Protein
Fat
Vitamins
Water and Minerals
How Are Gastrointestinal Processes
Regulated?
Basic Principles
Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
Stomach
Pancreatic Secretions
Bile Secretion and Liver Function
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Pathophysiology of the Gastrointestinal
Tract
Ulcers
Vomiting
Gallstones
Lactose Intolerance
Infl
ammatory Bowel Disease
Constipation and Diarrhea
chapter
15
The Digestion
and Absorption
of Food
t
he
gastrointestinal (GI)
system
(
Figure 15–1
) includes
the
gastrointestinal tract,
consisting of the mouth, pharynx,
esophagus, stomach, small intestine,
and large intestine, and the accessory
organs, consisting of the salivary
glands, liver, gallbladder, and
pancreas. The accessory organs are
not part of the tract but secrete
substances into it via connecting
ducts. The GI tract is also known as
the alimentary canal or the digestive
tract. The overall function of the
gastrointestinal system is to process
ingested foods into molecular forms
that are then transferred, along with
salts and water, to the body’s internal
environment, where the circulatory
system can distribute them to cells.
The gastrointestinal system is under
the local neural control of the enteric
nervous system and of the central
nervous system.
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