485
chapter
14
The Kidneys
and Regulation
of Water and
Inorganic Ions
S
ECTION
A
Basic Principles of Renal Physiology
Renal Functions
Structure of the Kidneys and Urinary
System
Basic Renal Processes
Glomerular Filtration
Tubular Reabsorption
Tubular Secretion
Metabolism by the Tubules
Regulation of Membrane Channels and
Transporters
“Division of Labor” in the Tubules
The Concept of Renal Clearance
Micturition
Additional Clinical Examples
Incontinence
S
ECTION
B
Regulation of Ion and
Water Balance
Total-Body Balance of Sodium and
Water
Basic Renal Processes for Sodium and
Water
Primary Active Sodium Reabsorption
Coupling of Water Reabsorption to
Sodium Reabsorption
Urine Concentration: The
Countercurrent Multiplier System
Renal Sodium Regulation
Control of GFR
Control of Sodium Reabsorption
Renal Water Regulation
Baroreceptor Control of Vasopressin
Secretion
Osmoreceptor Control of Vasopressin
Secretion
A Summary Example: The Response
to Sweating
Thirst and Salt Appetite
Potassium Regulation
Renal Regulation of Potassium
Renal Regulation of Calcium
and Phosphate
Summary—Division of Labor
Additional Clinical Examples
Hyperaldosteronism
S
ECTION
C
Hydrogen Ion Regulation
Sources of Hydrogen Ion Gain or Loss
Buffering of Hydrogen Ions in the
Body
Integration of Homeostatic Controls
Renal Mechanisms
Bicarbonate Handling
Addition of New Bicarbonate to the
Plasma
Renal Responses to Acidosis and Alkalosis
Classifi cation of Acidosis and Alkalosis
S
ECTION
D
Diuretics and Kidney Disease
Diuretics
Kidney Disease
Hemodialysis, Peritoneal Dialysis, and
Transplantation
Glomerulus in
a human kidney
(scanning electron
micrograph 500
×
).
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