442
442
chapter
13
Respiratory
Physiology
Resin cast of the
pulmonary arteries
and bronchi.
Organization of the Respiratory
System
The Airways and Blood Vessels
Site of Gas Exchange: The Alveoli
Relation of the Lungs to the Thoracic
(Chest) Wall
Ventilation and Lung Mechanics
How Is a Stable Balance Achieved
Between Breaths?
Inspiration
Expiration
Lung Compliance
Airway Resistance
Lung Volumes and Capacities
Alveolar Ventilation
Exchange of Gases in Alveoli and
Tissues
Partial Pressures of Gases
Alveolar Gas Pressures
Gas Exchange Between Alveoli and Blood
Matching of Ventilation and Blood Flow
in Alveoli
Gas Exchange Between Tissues and Blood
Transport of Oxygen in Blood
What Is the Effect of P
O
2
on Hemoglobin
Saturation?
Effects of Blood P
CO
2
, H
+
Concentration,
Temperature, and DPG
Concentration on Hemoglobin
Saturation
Transport of Carbon Dioxide in Blood
Transport of Hydrogen Ions Between
Tissues and Lungs
Control of Respiration
Neural Generation of Rhythmical
Breathing
Control of Ventilation by P
O
2
, P
CO
2
,
and
H
+
Concentration
Control of Ventilation During Exercise
Other Ventilatory Responses
Hypoxia
Why Do Ventilation-Perfusion
Abnormalities Affect O
2
More than
CO
2
?
Emphysema
Acclimatization to High Altitude
Nonrespiratory Functions of the Lungs
Additional Clinical Examples
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
(ARDS)
Sleep Apnea
r
espiratory physiology
can have
two quite different meanings:
(1) utilization of oxygen in the
metabolism of organic molecules
by cells, often termed internal or
cellular respiration, as described in
Chapter 3, and (2) the exchange
of oxygen and carbon dioxide
between an organism and the
external environment, often called
pulmonary physiology. The adjective
pulmonary
refers to the lungs. The
second meaning is the subject of this
chapter.
Human cells obtain most of their
energy from chemical reactions
involving oxygen. In addition, cells
must be able to eliminate carbon
dioxide, the major end product of
oxidative metabolism. A unicellular
organism can exchange oxygen
and carbon dioxide directly with
the external environment, but this
is obviously impossible for most
cells of a complex organism like
a human being. Therefore, the
evolution of large animals required
the development of specialized
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