Homeostasis: A Framework for Human Physiology
17
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Describe the levels of cellular organization and state the four
types of specialized cells and tissues.
2. List the organ systems of the body and give one-sentence
descriptions of their functions.
3. Contrast the two categories of functions performed by every
cell.
4. Name the two fl uids that constitute the extracellular fl
uid.
What are their relative proportions in the body, and how do
they differ from each other in composition?
5. State the relative volumes of water in the body fl
uid
compartments.
6. Describe fi ve important generalizations about homeostatic
control systems.
7. Contrast feedforward and negative feedback.
8. List the components of a refl ex arc.
9. What is the basic difference between a local homeostatic
response and a refl ex?
10. List the general categories of intercellular messengers.
11. Describe the conditions under which acclimatization occurs.
In what period of life might an acclimatization be irreversible?
Are acclimatizations passed on to a person’s offspring?
12. Under what conditions do circadian rhythms become free
running?
13. How do phase shifts occur?
14. What is the most important environmental cue for entrainment
of body rhythms?
15. Draw a fi gure illustrating the balance concept in homeostasis.
16. What are the three possible states of total-body balance of any
chemical?
intracellular fl
uid
5
learned refl ex
9
local homeostatic response
11
melatonin
14
muscle cell
3
muscle tissue
3
negative balance
15
negative feedback
8
nerve cell
3
nerve tissue
3
neurotransmitter
11
organ
2
organ system
2
pacemaker
14
paracrine agent
11
pathophysiology
2
phase-shift
14
physiological genomics
2
physiology
2
pineal gland
14
plasma
5
pool
14
positive balance
15
positive feedback
8
receptor (in refl ex)
10
refl ex
9
refl ex arc
10
set point
7
stable balance
15
steady state
7
stimulus
10
target cell
11
tissue
2
Chapter 1 Test Questions
(Answers appear in Appendix A.)
1. Which of the following is one of the four basic cell types in the
body?
a. respiratory
b. epithelial
c. endocrine
d. integumentary
e. immune
2. Which of the following is incorrect?
a. Equilibrium requires a constant input of energy.
b. Positive feedback is less common in nature than negative
feedback.
c. Homeostasis does not imply that a given variable is
unchanging.
d. Fever is an example of resetting a set point.
e. Efferent pathways carry information away from the
integrating center of a refl ex arc.
3. In a refl ex arc initiated by touching a hand to a hot stove, the
effector will belong to which class of tissue?
a. nerve
b. connective
c. muscle
d. epithelial
4. In the absence of any environmental cues, a circadian rhythm is
said to be
a. entrained.
b. in phase.
c. free running.
d. phase-shifted.
e. no longer present.
5. Most of the water in the human body is found in
a. the interstitial fl
uid compartment.
b. the intracellular fl
uid compartment.
c. the plasma compartment.
d. the total extracellular fl
uid compartment.
Chapter 1 Quantitative and Thought Questions
(Answers appear in Appendix A.)
1. Eskimos have a remarkable ability to work in the cold without
gloves and not suffer decreased skin blood fl ow. Does this prove
that there is a genetic difference between Eskimos and other
people with regard to this characteristic?
2. Explain how an imbalance in any given physiological variable
might produce a change in one or more other variables.
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