Cardiovascular Physiology
407
Pl
as
m
a
epinephrine
Activity of
s
ymp
a
thetic
nerve
s
to he
a
rt
Activity of
p
a
r
as
ymp
a
thetic
nerve
s
to he
a
rt
Mean arterial pre
ss
ure
Me
a
n
a
rteri
a
l pre
ssu
re
=
C
a
rdi
a
c o
u
tp
u
t
End-di
as
tolic
ventric
u
l
a
r vol
u
me
Atri
a
l pre
ssu
re
Veno
us
ret
u
rn
Activity of
s
ymp
a
thetic
nerve
s
to vein
s
Blood
vol
u
me
In
s
pir
a
tion
movement
s
S
kelet
a
l
m
us
cle p
u
mp
Cardiac muscle
S
troke vol
u
me
SA node
He
a
rt r
a
te
Veins
Veno
us
pre
ssu
re
Intern
a
l
b
lood pre
ssu
re
(myogenic re
s
pon
s
e)
Endothelin-1
Oxygen
K
+
, CO
2
, H
+
O
s
mol
a
rity
Adeno
s
ine
Eico
sa
noid
s
Br
a
dykinin
Subs
t
a
nce
s
rele
as
ed
d
u
ring inj
u
ry
Nitric oxide
Vasoconstrictors
Vasodilators
S
ymp
a
thetic nerve
s
Ne
u
ron
s
th
a
t rele
as
e
nitric oxide
Me
a
n
a
rteri
a
l pre
ssu
re
Cardiac output
Total peripheral re
s
i
s
tance
x
Tot
a
l peripher
a
l re
s
i
s
t
a
nce
Neural control
s
Hormonal control
s
Local control
s
Epinephrine
Angioten
s
in II
V
as
opre
ss
in
Epinephrine
Atri
a
l n
a
tri
u
retic
peptide
Blood vi
s
co
s
ity
Hem
a
tocrit
Arteriolar smooth muscle
Arteriol
a
r r
a
di
us
Vasoconstrictors
Vasodilators
Vasoconstrictors
Vasodilators
Figure 12–51
Summary of factors that determine systemic arterial pressure, a composite of Figures 12–28, 12–36, and 12–46, with the addition
of the effect of hematocrit on resistance.
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