The Endocrine System
357
Chapter 11 Test Questions
(Answers appear in Appendix A.)
1–5: Match the hormone with the function or feature (choices a–e):
Hormone:
1. vasopressin
2. ACTH
3. oxytocin
4. prolactin
5. luteinizing hormone
Function:
a. tropic for the adrenal cortex
b. is controlled by an amine-derived hormone of the
hypothalamus
c. antidiuresis
d. stimulation of testosterone production
e. stimulation of uterine contractions during labor
6. In the fi gure below, which hormone (A or B) binds to receptor
X with higher affi nity?
8. Tremors, nervousness, and increased heart rate can all be
symptoms of
a. increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system.
b. excessive secretion of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla.
c. hyperthyroidism.
d. hypothyroidism.
e. Answers a, b, and c are all correct.
9. Which of the following could theoretically result in dwarfi sm?
a. pituitary tumor making excess thyroid-stimulating hormone
b. inactivating mutations of IGF-1 receptors
c. delayed onset of puberty
d. decreased hypothalamic levels of somatostatin
e. normal plasma GH, but decreased feedback of growth
hormone on GHRH
10. Choose the correct statement.
a. During times of stress, cortisol acts as an anabolic hormone
in muscle and adipose tissue.
b. A defi ciency of thyroid hormones would result in increased
cellular concentrations of Na
+
/K
+
-ATPase pumps in target
tissues.
c. The posterior pituitary is connected to the hypothalamus by
long portal vessels.
d. The major way in which cholesterol is delivered to
steroidogenic glands is by diffusion of free cholesterol
through the plasma membrane.
e. A lack of iodide in the diet will have no signifi cant effect on
circulating thyroid hormones for at least several weeks.
11. Low plasma calcium intake causes
a. a PTH-mediated increase in 25-OH D.
b. a decrease in renal 1-hydroxylase activity.
c. a decrease in the urinary excretion of calcium.
d. a decrease in bone resorption.
e. an increase in vitamin D release from the skin.
B
Concentration of free hormone
Hormone bound to receptor
A
7. Which is NOT a symptom of Cushing’s disease?
a. high blood pressure
b. bone loss
c. suppressed immune function
d. goiter
e. hyperglycemia (increased blood glucose)
calcitonin
355
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D
[1,25-(OH)
2
D]
354
hydroxyapatite
352
mineralization
353
osteoclast
353
osteocyte
353
osteoid
352
parathyroid gland
353
parathyroid hormone
(PTH)
353
vitamin D
354
vitamin D
2
(ergocalciferol)
354
vitamin D
3
(cholecalciferol)
354
SECTION F CLINICAL TERMS
bisphosphonate
355
humoral hypercalcemia of
malignancy
355
hypercalcemia
355
hypocalcemia
355
hypocalcemic tetany
356
osteomalacia
355
osteoporosis
355
primary
hyperparathyroidism
355
SECTION F REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Describe bone remodeling.
2. Describe the handling of calcium by the kidneys and
gastrointestinal tract.
3. What controls the secretion of parathyroid hormone, and what
are this hormone’s four major effects?
4. Describe the formation and action of 1,25-(OH)
2
D. How
does parathyroid hormone infl uence the production of this
hormone?
primary
hypoparathyroidism
356
pseudohypoparathyroidism
356
PTH-related peptide
(PTHrp)
355
rickets
355
secondary
hyperparathyroidism
356
selective estrogen receptor
modulator (SERM)
355
SECTION F KEY TERMS
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