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Chapter 11
Table 11–1
Summary of the Hormones
Site Produced
(Endocrine Gland)
Hormone
Major Function* Is Control Of:
Adipose tissue cells
Leptin, several others
Appetite; metabolic rate; reproduction
Adrenal:
Adrenal cortex
Cortisol
Organic metabolism; response to stress; immune system;
development
Androgens
Sex drive in women; adrenarche
Aldosterone
Sodium and potassium excretion by kidneys
Adrenal medulla
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Organic metabolism; cardiovascular function; response
to stress
Gastrointestinal tract
Gastrin
Gastrointestinal tract motility and acid secretion
Ghrelin
Appetite
Secretin
Exocrine and endocrine secretions from pancreas
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
Secretion of bile from gallbladder
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide
(GIP)
Insulin secretion
Motilin
Gastrointestinal tract motility
Gonads:
Ovaries: female
Estrogen (Estradiol in humans)
Reproductive system; secondary sex characteristics;
growth and development; development of ovarian follicles
Progesterone
Endometrium and pregnancy
Inhibin
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion
Relaxin
Relaxation of cervix and pubic ligaments
Testes: male
Androgen (Testosterone and
Dihydrotestosterone)
Reproductive system; secondary sex characteristics;
growth and development; sex drive; gamete development
Inhibin
FSH secretion
Müllerian-inhibiting substance (MIS)
Regression of Müllerian ducts
Heart
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP,
atriopeptin)
Sodium excretion by kidneys; blood pressure
Hypothalamus
Hypophysiotropic hormones:
Secretion of hormones by the anterior pituitary
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
Secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Growth hormone-releasing hormone
(GHRH)
Secretion of growth hormone (GH)
Somatostatin (SS)
Secretion of growth hormone
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
(GnRH)
Secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-
stimulating hormone (FSH)
Dopamine (DA)
Secretion of prolactin (PRL)
Kidneys
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Erythrocyte production in bone marrow
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D
Calcium absorption in GI tract
Leukocytes, macrophages,
endothelial cells, and
broblasts
Cytokines
(these include the interleukins,
colony-stimulating factors, interferons,
tumor necrosis factors)
Immune defenses; immune cell growth and secretory
processes
Liver and other cells
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)
Cell division and growth of bone and other tissues
Pancreas
Insulin
Plasma glucose, amino acids and fatty acids
Glucagon
Plasma glucose
Somatostatin (SS)
Secretion of insulin and glucagon
Parathyroids
Parathyroid hormone (PTH,
parathormone)
Plasma calcium and phosphate; synthesis of
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D
(continued)
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