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Chapter 8
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. State the two criteria used to defi ne one’s state of
consciousness.
2. What type of neural activity is recorded as the EEG?
3. Draw EEG records that show alpha and beta rhythms,
the stages of NREM sleep, and REM sleep. Indicate the
characteristic wave frequencies of each.
4. Distinguish NREM sleep from REM sleep.
5. Briefl y describe a neural mechanism that determines the states
of consciousness.
6. Name the criteria used to distinguish brain death from coma.
7. Describe the orienting response as a form of directed attention.
8. Distinguish primary from secondary motivated behavior.
9. Explain how rewards and punishments are anatomically related
to emotions.
10. Explain what brain self-stimulation can tell about emotions
and rewards and punishments.
11. Name the primary neurotransmitter that mediates the brain
reward systems.
12. Distinguish inner emotions from emotional behavior. Name
the brain areas involved in each.
13. Describe the role of the limbic system in emotions.
14. Name the major neurotransmitters involved in schizophrenia
and the mood disorders.
15. Describe a mechanism that could explain tolerance and
withdrawal.
16. Distinguish the types of memory.
Chapter 8 Test Questions
(Answers appear in Appendix A.)
Match the following states of consciousness with the
electroencephalogram patterns described below. (Use each once.)
a. relaxed, awake, eyes closed
b. stage 4 nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep
c. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
d. epileptic seizure
1. Very high-amplitude, recurrent waves, associated with sharp
spikes
2. Low-amplitude, high-frequency waves, similar to the attentive
awake state
3. Irregular, slow frequency, high-amplitude, “alpha” rhythm
4. Regular, very slow frequency, very high-amplitude “delta”
rhythm
5. Which correctly associates neurotransmitter activity with a state
of consciousness?
a. low GABA, high histamine: REM sleep
b. low acetylcholine, high serotonin: REM sleep
c. high acetylcholine, low norepinephrine: waking state
d. high GABA, low histamine: REM sleep
e. high GABA, low histamine: NREM sleep
6. Which best describes “habituation?”
a. seeking out and focusing on momentarily important stimuli
b. decreased behavioral response to a persistent irrelevant
stimulus
c. halting current activity and orienting toward a novel
stimulus
d. evaluation of the importance of sensory stimuli that occurs
prior to focusing attention
e. strengthening of synapses that are repeatedly stimulated
during learning
7. The mesolimbic dopamine pathway is most closely associated with
a. shifting between states of consciousness.
b. emotional behavior.
c. motivation and reward behaviors.
d. perception of fear.
e. primary visual perception.
8. Antidepressant medications most commonly target what
neurotransmitter?
a. acetylcholine
b. dopamine
c. histamine
d. serotonin
e. glutamate
9. Which is a true statement about memory?
a. Consolidation converts short-term memories into long-term
memories.
b. Working memory stores information for years, perhaps
indefi nitely.
c. In retrograde amnesia, the ability to form new memories is
lost.
d. The cerebellum is an important site of storage for declarative
memory.
e. Destruction of the hippocampus erases all previously stored
memories.
10. Broca’s area
a. is in the parietal association cortex, and is responsible for
language comprehension.
b. is in the right frontal lobe, and is responsible for memory
formation.
c. is in the left frontal lobe, and is responsible for articulation
of speech.
d. is in the occipital lobe, and is responsible for interpreting
body language.
e. is part of the limbic system, and is responsible for the
perception of fear.
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