Consciousness, the Brain, and Behavior
a. Repetition of a behavior indicates it is rewarding, and
avoidance of a behavior indicates it is punishing.
b. The mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which goes to
prefrontal cortex and parts of the limbic system, mediates
emotion and motivation.
c. Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter in the brain
pathway that mediates motivation and reward.
II. Three aspects of emotion—anatomical and physiological bases
for emotion, emotional behavior, and inner emotions—can be
distinguished. The limbic system integrates inner emotions and
Altered States of Consciousness
I. Hyperactivity in a brain dopaminergic system is implicated in
II. The mood disorders are caused, at least in part, by disturbances
in transmission at brain synapses mediated by dopamine.
III. Many psychoactive drugs, which are often chemically related to
neurotransmitters, result in substance dependence, withdrawal,
and tolerance. The mesolimbic dopamine pathway is implicated
in substance abuse.
Learning and Memory
I. The brain processes, stores, and retrieves information in
different ways to suit different needs.
II. Memory encoding involves cellular or molecular changes
speciﬁ c to different memories.
III. Declarative memories are involved in remembering facts and
events. Procedural memories are memories of how to do
IV. Short-term memories are converted into long-term memories
by a process known as consolidation.
V. Prefrontal cortex and limbic regions of the temporal lobe are
important brain areas for some forms of memory.
VI. Formation of long-term memory probably involves changes in
second-messenger systems and protein synthesis.
Cerebral Dominance and Language
I. The two cerebral hemispheres differ anatomically, chemically,
and functionally. In 90 percent of the population, the
left hemisphere is superior at producing language and in
performing other tasks that require rapid changes over time.
II. The development of language functions occurs in a critical
period that closes at puberty.
III. After damage to the dominant hemisphere, the opposite
hemisphere can acquire some language function—the younger
the patient, the greater the transfer of function.
I. Many brain areas are involved in the performance of even
simple mental tasks.
II. Each function is localized to a speciﬁ c brain area, but, because
many units are involved, widely distributed brain areas take
part in mental tasks.
III. Little is known about how consciousness and behavior are
actually formed in the brain.
Additional Clinical Examples
I. Structures in the temporal lobe are necessary for memory
formation and for the expression and recognition of fear.
reticular activating system
states of consciousness
sylvian ﬁ ssure
altered states of
attention deﬁ cit hyperactivity
persistent vegetative state
repetitive transcranial magnetic
seasonal affective depressive
serotonin-speciﬁ c reuptake
II. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation uses
electromagnetic pulses to noninvasively stimulate regions of
the cortex. It is under investigation for treating depression and
III. Head trauma can result in severe neurological dysfunction,
and diagnosis of the type of brain injury depends in part on
whether the patient loses consciousness immediately after the