Consciousness, the Brain, and Behavior
251
a. Repetition of a behavior indicates it is rewarding, and
avoidance of a behavior indicates it is punishing.
b. The mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which goes to
prefrontal cortex and parts of the limbic system, mediates
emotion and motivation.
c. Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter in the brain
pathway that mediates motivation and reward.
II. Three aspects of emotion—anatomical and physiological bases
for emotion, emotional behavior, and inner emotions—can be
distinguished. The limbic system integrates inner emotions and
behavior.
Altered States of Consciousness
I. Hyperactivity in a brain dopaminergic system is implicated in
schizophrenia.
II. The mood disorders are caused, at least in part, by disturbances
in transmission at brain synapses mediated by dopamine.
III. Many psychoactive drugs, which are often chemically related to
neurotransmitters, result in substance dependence, withdrawal,
and tolerance. The mesolimbic dopamine pathway is implicated
in substance abuse.
Learning and Memory
I. The brain processes, stores, and retrieves information in
different ways to suit different needs.
II. Memory encoding involves cellular or molecular changes
specifi c to different memories.
III. Declarative memories are involved in remembering facts and
events. Procedural memories are memories of how to do
things.
IV. Short-term memories are converted into long-term memories
by a process known as consolidation.
V. Prefrontal cortex and limbic regions of the temporal lobe are
important brain areas for some forms of memory.
VI. Formation of long-term memory probably involves changes in
second-messenger systems and protein synthesis.
Cerebral Dominance and Language
I. The two cerebral hemispheres differ anatomically, chemically,
and functionally. In 90 percent of the population, the
left hemisphere is superior at producing language and in
performing other tasks that require rapid changes over time.
II. The development of language functions occurs in a critical
period that closes at puberty.
III. After damage to the dominant hemisphere, the opposite
hemisphere can acquire some language function—the younger
the patient, the greater the transfer of function.
Conclusion
I. Many brain areas are involved in the performance of even
simple mental tasks.
II. Each function is localized to a specifi c brain area, but, because
many units are involved, widely distributed brain areas take
part in mental tasks.
III. Little is known about how consciousness and behavior are
actually formed in the brain.
Additional Clinical Examples
I. Structures in the temporal lobe are necessary for memory
formation and for the expression and recognition of fear.
alpha rhythm
234
beta rhythm
234
brain self-stimulation
240
Broca’s area
247
conscious experience
233
consolidation
246
declarative memory
245
delta rhythm
234
EEG arousal
234
electroencephalogram
(EEG)
233
emotional behavior
241
habituation
238
inner emotion
241
learning
245
long-term depression
(LTD)
246
long-term memory
246
long-term potentiation
(LTP)
246
memory
245
memory encoding
245
mesolimbic dopamine
pathway
240
mood
243
motivation
240
NREM sleep
234
orienting response
238
paradoxical sleep
234
plasticity
247
preattentive processing
238
primary motivated
behavior
240
procedural memory
246
REM sleep
234
reticular activating system
(RAS)
236
selective attention
238
short-term memory
246
states of consciousness
233
sylvian fi ssure
247
theta rhythm
234
Wernicke’s area
247
working memory
246
altered states of
consciousness
242
Alzheimer’s disease
246
amnesia
246
anterograde amnesia
246
aphasia
247
attention defi cit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD)
239
bipolar disorder
243
brain death
237
catatonia
243
coma
237
concussion
250
cross-tolerance
245
depressive disorder
(depression)
243
electroconvulsive therapy
(ECT)
243
epidural hematoma
250
epilepsy
233
intracranial hemorrhage
250
mania
243
methylphenidate
239
monoamine oxidase
inhibitor
243
mood disorder
243
persistent vegetative state
237
phototherapy
244
physical dependence
244
psychological dependence
244
repetitive transcranial magnetic
stimulation (rTMS)
250
retrograde amnesia
246
schizophrenia
242
seasonal affective depressive
disorder (SADD)
244
sensory neglect
239
serotonin-specifi c reuptake
inhibitors (SSRI)
243
sleep apnea
235
split brain
249
subdural hematoma
250
substance dependence
244
tolerance
245
tricyclic antidepressant
drug
243
Urback-Wiethe disease
249
withdrawal
244
CLINICAL TERMS
II. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation uses
electromagnetic pulses to noninvasively stimulate regions of
the cortex. It is under investigation for treating depression and
other disorders.
III. Head trauma can result in severe neurological dysfunction,
and diagnosis of the type of brain injury depends in part on
whether the patient loses consciousness immediately after the
accident.
KEY TERMS
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