Sensory Physiology
229
a. Odorant molecules, once dissolved in the mucus that bathes
the olfactory receptors, bind to specifi c receptors (protein
binding sites). Each olfactory receptor cell has one or at
most a few of the 1000 different receptor types.
b. Olfactory pathways go to the limbic system.
Additional Clinical Examples
I. Increased fl uid in the cochlea and vestibular apparatus results
in dizziness and loss of function.
II. Color blindness is due to abnormalities of the cone pigments
resulting from genetic mutation.
SECTION B KEY TERMS
SECTION B CLINICAL TERMS
accommodation
210
amacrine cell
214
ampulla
222
anterolateral pathway
206
aqueous humor
209
basal cell
224
basilar membrane
220
bipolar cell
214
capsaicin
204
chemoreceptor
224
choroid
209
chromophore
213
ciliary muscle
209
cochlea
218
cochlear duct
219
cone
213
cornea
209
cupula
222
dark adaptation
214
disc
212
dorsal column pathway
206
endolymph
218
eustachian tube
218
external auditory canal
218
fovea centralis
209
frequency
208
ganglion cell
214
guanylyl cyclase
213
gustation
224
hair cell
221
helicotrema
220
horizontal cell
214
incus
218
inner ear
218
inner segment
212
iris
209
kinesthesia
204
labyrinth
222
lens
209
light adaptation
214
lingual papillae
224
malleus
218
menthol
204
middle ear
218
nociceptors
204
odorant
226
olfaction
226
olfactory bulb
226
olfactory epithelium
226
opponent color cell
216
opsin
213
optic chiasm
215
optic disc
209
optic nerve
209
optic tracts
215
organ of Corti
220
otolith
223
outer segment
212
oval window
218
phosphodiesterase
214
photopigment
213
photoreceptor
209
pigment epithelium
213
proprioception
224
pupil
209
refraction
209
retina
209
retinal
213
rhodopsin
213
rod
213
round window
220
saccade
216
saccule
222
scala tympani
220
scala vestibuli
219
sclera
209
semicircular canal
222
somatic sensation
203
stapedius
219
stapes
218
stereocilia
221
suprachiasmatic nucleus
215
taste bud
224
tectorial membrane
221
tensor tympani
219
tip link
221
transducin
214
tympanic membrane
218
umami
224
utricle
222
vestibular apparatus
222
vestibulocochlear nerve
221
visible spectrum
209
vitreous humor
209
wavelength
208
zonular fi ber
209
acupuncture
206
analgesia
206
astigmatism
211
cataract
210
cochlear implant
222
color blindness
227
farsighted
211
glaucoma
211
hearing aid
222
hyperalgesia
206
hyperopic
211
Ménière’s disease
227
motion sickness
224
myopic
210
nearsighted
210
nystagmus
223
ophthalmoscope
209
placebo
206
presbyopia
210
referred pain
205
stimulation-produced
analgesia
206
transcutaneous electric nerve
stimulation (TENS)
206
vertigo
224
SECTION B REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Describe the similarities between pain and the other somatic
sensations. Describe the differences.
2. List the structures through which light must pass before it
reaches the photopigment in the rods and cones.
3. Describe the events that take place during accommodation for
near vision.
4. What changes take place in neurotransmitter release from the
rods or cones when they are exposed to light?
5. Beginning with the ganglion cells of the retina, describe the
visual pathway.
6. List the sequence of events that occurs between the entry of a
sound wave into the external auditory canal and the fi ring of
action potentials in the cochlear nerve.
7. Describe the anatomical relationship between the cochlea and
the cochlear duct.
8. What is the relationship between head movement and cupula
movement in a semicircular canal?
9. What causes the release of neurotransmitter from the utricle
and saccule receptor cells?
10. In what ways are the sensory systems for taste and olfaction
similar? In what ways are they different?
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