188
Chapter 6
III. The brain ventricles and the space within the meninges are
fi lled with cerebrospinal fl uid, which is formed in the ventricles.
IV. The blood-brain barrier closely regulates the chemical
composition of the extracellular fl uid of the CNS.
Additional Clinical Examples
I. Nicotine, a plant alkaloid found in tobacco products,
stimulates acetylcholine receptors found at neuromuscular
junctions and in widespread parts of the nervous system. It
causes a complex pattern of stimulation and desensitization of
those receptors, and effects include muscle relaxation, blood
pressure elevation, and stimulation of brain reward pathways.
The latter effect explains why nicotine has a higher addiction
risk than most commonly used drugs or alcohol.
SECTION D KEY TERMS
SECTION D CLINICAL TERMS
adrenal medulla
182
afferent division of the peripheral
nervous system
178
arachnoid mater
185
autonomic ganglion
180
autonomic nervous system
178
basal ganglia
176
basal nuclei
176
blood-brain barrier
186
brainstem
174
cerebellum
174
cerebral cortex
174
cerebral hemisphere
174
cerebral ventricle
174
cerebrospinal fl uid (CSF)
185
cerebrum
174
choroid plexus
185
commissure
173
corpus callosum
174
cranial nerve
177
diencephalon
174
dorsal horn
177
dorsal root
177
dorsal root ganglia
177
dual innervation
182
dura mater
185
efferent division of the peripheral
nervous system
178
enteric nervous system
180
fi ght-or-fl ight response
183
forebrain
174
frontal lobe
174
ganglion
174
gray matter
174
gyrus
174
hypothalamus
176
limbic system
176
medulla oblongata
174
meninges
185
midbrain
174
motor neuron
180
nucleus
174
occipital lobe
174
parasympathetic division of
the autonomic nervous
system
180
parietal lobe
174
pathway
173
pia mater
185
pituitary gland
176
pons
174
postganglionic neuron
180
preganglionic neuron
180
pyramidal cell
174
rest-or-digest
183
reticular formation
177
addiction
187
hydrocephalus
186
meningitis
185
nicotine
186
stroke
186
tolerance
187
SECTION D REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Make an organizational chart showing the central nervous system,
peripheral nervous system, brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves,
cranial nerves, forebrain, brainstem, cerebrum, diencephalon,
midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum.
2. Draw a cross section of the spinal cord showing the gray and
white matter, dorsal and ventral roots, dorsal root ganglion,
and spinal nerve. Indicate the general locations of pathways.
3. List two functions of the thalamus.
4. List the functions of the hypothalamus, and discuss how they
relate to homeostatic control.
5. Make a peripheral nervous system chart indicating the
relationships among afferent and efferent divisions, somatic
and autonomic nervous systems, and sympathetic and
parasympathetic divisions.
6. Contrast the somatic and autonomic divisions of the efferent
nervous system; mention at least three characteristics of each.
7. Name the neurotransmitter released at each synapse or
neuroeffector junction in the somatic and autonomic systems.
8. Contrast the sympathetic and parasympathetic components
of the autonomic nervous system; mention at least four
characteristics of each.
9. Explain how the adrenal medulla can affect receptors on various
effector organs despite the fact that its cells have no axons.
10. The chemical composition of the CNS extracellular fl uid is
different from that of blood. Explain how this difference is
achieved.
somatic nervous system
178
spinal nerve
177
subarachnoid space
185
subcortical nucleus
174
sulcus
174
sympathetic division of
the autonomic nervous
system
180
sympathetic trunk
180
temporal lobe
174
thalamus
176
tract
173
ventral horn
177
ventral root
177
white matter
174
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