Neuronal Signaling and the Structure of the Nervous System
181
Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons
Parasympathetic postganglionic neurons
Sympathetic preganglionic neurons
Sympathetic postganglionic neurons
Eye
Lacrimal
gland
Midbrain
Pons
Brainstem
Cervical
Thoracic
Lumbar
Sacral
Olfactory
glands
Salivary
glands
Medulla
Vagus
nerve
Heart
Lungs
Stomach
Spleen
Large intestine
Urinary
bladder
Small
intestine
Adrenal
gland
Kidney
Inferior
mesenteric
ganglion
S5
Celiac
ganglion
Superior
mesenteric
ganglion
Inferior
cervical
ganglion
Middle
cervical
ganglion
Superior
cervical
ganglion
C1
C8
T1
T12
L1
L5
S1
Sympathetic trunk
Spinal cord
III
X
VII
IX
Figure 6–44
The parasympathetic (at left) and sympathetic (at right) divisions of the autonomic nervous system. Although single nerves are shown exiting
the brainstem and spinal cord, all represent paired (left and right) nerves. Only one sympathetic trunk is indicated, although there are two, one
on each side of the spinal cord. The celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric ganglia are collateral ganglia. Not shown are the fi bers
passing to the liver, blood vessels, genitalia, and skin glands.
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