xvi
CHAPTER
18
Defense Mechanisms of the Body
646
Cells Mediating Immune Defenses
647
Cytokines 648
Nonspecifi c Immune Defenses
648
Defenses at Body Surfaces
648
Infl
ammation
648
Interferons 654
Specifi c Immune Defenses
654
Overview 654
Lymphoid Organs and Lymphocyte Origins
655
Functions of B Cells and T Cells
658
Lymphocyte Receptors
658
Antigen Presentation to T Cells
660
NK Cells
662
Development of Immune Tolerance
662
Antibody-Mediated Immune Responses: Defenses Against Bacteria,
Extracellular Viruses, and Toxins
663
Defenses Against Virus-Infected Cells and Cancer Cells
667
Systemic Manifestations of Infection
668
Factors That Alter the Body’s Resistance to
Infection 670
Acquired Immune Defi
ciency Syndrome (AIDS)
671
Antibiotics 672
Harmful Immune Responses
672
Graft Rejection
672
Transfusion Reactions
672
Allergy (Hypersensitivity)
673
Autoimmune Disease
675
Excessive Infl
ammatory Responses
675
ADDITIONAL CLINICAL EXAMPLES
678
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
678
TEST QUESTIONS
681
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
682
ANSWERS TO PHYSIOLOGICAL INQUIRIES
682
CHAPTER
19
Medical Physiology: Integration
Using Clinical Cases
683
CASE 19–1
A Woman with Palpitations
and Heat Intolerance
Case Presentation
684
Physical Examination
684
Laboratory Tests
685
Diagnosis 686
Physiological Integration
687
Therapy 688
CASE 19–2
A Man with Chest Pain After
a Long Airplane Flight
Case Presentation
688
Physical Examination
688
Laboratory Tests
688
Diagnosis 689
Physiological Integration
690
Therapy 690
CASE 19–3
A Man with Abdominal Pain,
Fever, and Circulatory Failure
Case Presentation
691
Physical Examination
691
Laboratory Tests
691
Diagnosis 691
Physiological Integration
693
Therapy 693
APPENDIX
A:
Answers to Test & Quantitative and
Thought Questions
6 9 6
APPENDIX
B:
Index of Exercise Physiology
7 1 2
APPENDIX
C:
Index of Clinical Terms
7 13
GLOSSARY
717
REFERENCES
747
CREDITS
749
INDEX
751
Table of Contents
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