137
Micrograph of stem cells
differentiating into neurons
(red) and astrocytes (green).
chapter
6
Neuronal
Signaling and
the Structure
of the Nervous
System
S
ECTION
A
Neural Tissue
Structure and Maintenance of Neurons
Functional Classes of Neurons
Glial Cells
Neural Growth and Regeneration
S
ECTION
B
Membrane Potentials
Basic Principles of Electricity
The Resting Membrane Potential
Graded Potentials and Action Potentials
Graded Potentials
Action Potentials
Additional Clinical Examples
Multiple Sclerosis
S
ECTION
C
Synapses
Functional Anatomy of Synapses
Mechanisms of Neurotransmitter
Release
Activation of the Postsynaptic Cell
Excitatory Chemical Synapses
Inhibitory Chemical Synapses
Synaptic Integration
Synaptic Strength
Modifi cation of Synaptic Transmission by
Drugs and Disease
Neurotransmitters and
Neuromodulators
Acetylcholine
Biogenic Amines
Amino Acid Neurotransmitters
Neuropeptides
Miscellaneous
Neuroeffector Communication
Additional Clinical Examples
Ethanol: A Pharmacological Hand
Grenade
S
ECTION
D
Structure of the Nervous System
Central Nervous System: Brain
Forebrain
Cerebellum
Brainstem
Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Blood Supply, Blood-Brain Barrier, and
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Additional Clinical Examples
Nicotine
i
n order to coordinate
the functions of the
cells of the human body,
two control systems exist.
One, the endocrine system
(covered in Chapter 11),
is a collection of blood-
borne messengers that work
relatively slowly. The other is
the nervous system, a rapid
control system that is the
focus of this chapter. Together
they regulate most internal
functions and organize and
control the activities we
know collectively as human
behavior. These activities
include not only such easily
observed acts as smiling and
walking, but also experiences
such as feeling angry, being
motivated, having an idea,
or remembering a long-past
event. Such experiences, which
we attribute to the “mind,”
relate to the integrated
activities of nerve cells in as
yet unidentifi ed ways.
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