xv
SECTION B
Male Reproductive Physiology
Anatomy 605
Spermatogenesis 606
Transport of Sperm
609
Erection 609
Ejaculation 610
Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive
Functions 611
Control of the Testes
611
Testosterone 611
Puberty 612
Andropause 612
Additional Clinical Examples
613
Hypogonadism 613
SECTION C
Female Reproductive Physiology
Anatomy 615
Ovarian Functions
615
Oogenesis 615
Follicle Growth
617
Formation of the Corpus Luteum
619
Sites of Synthesis of Ovarian Hormones
619
Control of Ovarian Function
619
Follicle Development and Estrogen Synthesis
During the Early and Middle Follicular Phases
620
LH Surge and Ovulation
621
The Luteal Phase
622
Uterine Changes in the Menstrual Cycle
623
Other Effects of Estrogen and Progesterone
625
Androgens in Women
626
Puberty 626
Female Sexual Response
627
Pregnancy 627
Egg Transport
627
Intercourse, Sperm Transport, and Capacitation
627
Fertilization 627
Early Development, Implantation, and Placentation
628
Hormonal and Other Changes During Pregnancy
632
Parturition 634
Lactation 636
Contraception 638
Infertility 639
Menopause 639
Additional Clinical Examples
640
Amenorrhea 640
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
640
Precocious Puberty
641
TEST QUESTIONS
644
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
644
ANSWERS TO PHYSIOLOGICAL INQUIRIES
645
Table of Contents
Endocrine and Neural Control of the Absorptive
and Postabsorptive States
571
Insulin 572
Glucagon 575
Epinephrine and Sympathetic Nerves to Liver
and Adipose Tissue
575
Cortisol 576
Growth Hormone
576
Summary of Hormonal Controls
577
Energy Homeostasis in Exercise and Stress
577
Additional Clinical Examples
578
Diabetes Mellitus
578
Hypoglycemia 580
Increased Plasma Cholesterol
580
SECTION B
Regulation of Total-Body Energy
Balance and Temperature
Basic Concepts of Energy Expenditure
583
Metabolic Rate
584
Regulation of Total-Body Energy Stores
585
Control of Food Intake
586
Overweight and Obesity
588
Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa
589
What Should We Eat?
590
Regulation of Body Temperature
590
Mechanisms of Heat Loss or Gain
591
Temperature-Regulating Refl
exes
591
Temperature Acclimatization
594
Additional Clinical Examples
594
Fever and Hyperthermia
594
Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke
596
TEST QUESTIONS
597
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
598
ANSWERS TO PHYSIOLOGICAL INQUIRIES
598
CHAPTER
17
Reproduction 599
SECTION A
General Terminology and Concepts; Sex
Determination and Differentiation
General Principles of Gametogenesis
601
Sex Determination
602
Sex Differentiation
603
Differentiation of the Gonads
603
Differentiation of Internal and External Genitalia
603
Sexual Differentiation of the Central Nervous
System and Homosexuality
604
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