xiv
SECTION D
Diuretics and Kidney Disease
Diuretics 523
Kidney Disease
523
Hemodialysis, Peritoneal Dialysis, and Transplantation
524
TEST QUESTIONS
525
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
526
ANSWERS TO PHYSIOLOGICAL INQUIRIES
527
CHAPTER
15
The Digestion and Absorption
of Food
528
Overview: Functions of the Gastrointestinal
Organs 530
Structure of the Gastrointestinal Tract Wall
534
Digestion and Absorption
536
Carbohydrate 536
Protein 537
Fat 537
Vitamins 539
Water and Minerals
540
How Are Gastrointestinal Processes Regulated?
540
Basic Principles
540
Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
543
Stomach 545
Pancreatic Secretions
551
Bile Secretion and Liver Function
553
Small Intestine
554
Large Intestine
556
Pathophysiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract
557
Ulcers 557
Vomiting 559
Gallstones 559
Lactose Intolerance
560
Infl
ammatory Bowel Disease
560
Constipation and Diarrhea
560
TEST QUESTIONS
564
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
565
ANSWERS TO PHYSIOLOGICAL INQUIRIES
565
CHAPTER
16
Regulation of Organic Metabolism
and Energy Balance
566
SECTION A
Control and Integration
of Carbohydrate, Protein,
and Fat Metabolism
Events of the Absorptive and Postabsorptive States
567
Absorptive State
568
Postabsorptive State
569
Table of Contents
CHAPTER
14
The Kidneys and Regulation
of Water and Inorganic Ions
485
SECTION A
Basic Principles of Renal Physiology
Renal Functions
486
Structure of the Kidneys and Urinary System
487
Basic Renal Processes
489
Glomerular Filtration
492
Tubular Reabsorption
494
Tubular Secretion
496
Metabolism by the Tubules
496
Regulation of Membrane Channels and Transporters
497
“Division of Labor” in the Tubules
497
The Concept of Renal Clearance
497
Micturition 498
Additional Clinical Examples
499
Incontinence 499
SECTION B
Regulation of Ion
and Water Balance
Total-Body Balance of Sodium and Water
500
Basic Renal Processes for Sodium and Water
501
Primary Active Sodium Reabsorption
501
Coupling of Water Reabsorption to Sodium Reabsorption
501
Urine Concentration: The Countercurrent Multiplier System
503
Renal Sodium Regulation
506
Control of GFR
507
Control of Sodium Reabsorption
507
Renal Water Regulation
510
Baroreceptor Control of Vasopressin Secretion
510
Osmoreceptor Control of Vasopressin Secretion
511
A Summary Example: The Response to Sweating
512
Thirst and Salt Appetite
512
Potassium Regulation
512
Renal Regulation of Potassium
513
Renal Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate
514
Summary—Division of Labor
514
Additional Clinical Examples
515
Hyperaldosteronism 515
SECTION C
Hydrogen Ion Regulation
Sources of Hydrogen Ion Gain or Loss
517
Buffering of Hydrogen Ions in the Body
518
Integration of Homeostatic Controls
518
Renal Mechanisms
518
Bicarbonate Handling
519
Addition of New Bicarbonate to the Plasma
519
Renal Responses to Acidosis and Alkalosis
520
Classifi cation of Acidosis and Alkalosis
521
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