xiii
TEST QUESTIONS
439
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
440
ANSWERS TO PHYSIOLOGICAL INQUIRIES
440
CHAPTER
13
Respiratory Physiology
442
Organization of the Respiratory System
443
The Airways and Blood Vessels
443
Site of Gas Exchange: The Alveoli
444
Relation of the Lungs to the Thoracic (Chest) Wall
444
Ventilation and Lung Mechanics
446
How Is a Stable Balance Achieved Between Breaths?
448
Inspiration 449
Expiration 451
Lung Compliance
452
Airway Resistance
453
Lung Volumes and Capacities
454
Alveolar Ventilation
456
Exchange of Gases in Alveoli and Tissues
457
Partial Pressures of Gases
457
Alveolar Gas Pressures
459
Gas Exchange Between Alveoli and Blood
460
Matching of Ventilation and Blood Flow in Alveoli
461
Gas Exchange Between Tissues and Blood
462
Transport of Oxygen in Blood
463
What Is the Effect of
P
O
2
on Hemoglobin Saturation?
463
Effects of Blood
P
CO
2
, H
+
Concentration, Temperature, and DPG
Concentration on Hemoglobin Saturation
466
Transport of Carbon Dioxide in Blood
467
Transport of Hydrogen Ions Between Tissues
and Lungs
468
Control of Respiration
469
Neural Generation of Rhythmical Breathing
469
Control of Ventilation by
P
O
2
,
P
CO
2
, and H
+
Concentration
470
Control of Ventilation During Exercise
474
Other Ventilatory Responses
475
Hypoxia 476
Why Do Ventilation-Perfusion Abnormalities Affect O
2
More than CO
2
? 476
Emphysema 477
Acclimatization to High Altitude
477
Nonrespiratory Functions of the Lungs
478
Additional Clinical Examples
478
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
478
Sleep Apnea
478
TEST QUESTIONS
483
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
483
ANSWERS TO PHYSIOLOGICAL INQUIRIES
484
Table of Contents
Endothelial Cells and Vascular Smooth Muscle
391
Arteriolar Control in Specifi
c Organs
392
Capillaries 392
Anatomy of the Capillary Network
394
Velocity of Capillary Blood Flow
394
Diffusion Across the Capillary Wall: Exchanges of
Nutrients and Metabolic End Products
395
Bulk Flow Across the Capillary Wall: Distribution
of the Extracellular Fluid
397
Veins 399
Determinants of Venous Pressure
399
The Lymphatic System
401
Mechanism of Lymph Flow
401
Additional Clinical Examples
403
Causes of Edema
403
SECTION D
Integration of Cardiovascular
Function: Regulation of Systemic
Arterial Pressure
Baroreceptor Refl exes
408
Arterial Baroreceptors
408
The Medullary Cardiovascular Center
409
Operation of the Arterial Baroreceptor Refl
ex
409
Other Baroreceptors
410
Blood Volume and Long-Term Regulation of Arterial
Pressure 410
Other Cardiovascular Refl exes and Responses
411
Additional Clinical Examples
412
Elevated Intracranial Pressure
412
SECTION E
Cardiovascular Patterns in
Health and Disease
Hemorrhage and Other Causes of Hypotension
413
Shock 414
The Upright Posture
414
Exercise 415
Maximal Oxygen Consumption and Training
417
Hypertension 419
Heart Failure
419
Coronary Artery Disease and Heart Attacks
422
SECTION F
Blood and Hemostasis
Plasma 425
The Blood Cells
425
Erythrocytes 425
Leukocytes 428
Platelets 429
Regulation of Blood Cell Production
429
Hemostasis: The Prevention of Blood Loss
431
Formation of a Platelet Plug
431
Blood Coagulation: Clot Formation
432
Anticlotting Systems
435
Anticlotting Drugs
436
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