xii
Table of Contents
Hormone Metabolism and Excretion
324
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
324
Hormone Receptors
324
Events Elicited by Hormone-Receptor Binding
325
Pharmacological Effects of Hormones
325
Inputs that Control Hormone Secretion
326
Control by Plasma Concentrations of Mineral Ions
or Organic Nutrients
326
Control by Neurons
326
Control by Other Hormones
327
Types of Endocrine Disorders
327
Hyposecretion 327
Hypersecretion 328
Hyporesponsiveness and Hyperresponsiveness
328
SECTION B
The Hypothalamus
and Pituitary Gland
Control Systems Involving the Hypothalamus
and Pituitary
330
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
331
Anterior Pituitary Hormones and the Hypothalamus
331
SECTION C
The Thyroid Gland
Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones
337
Control of Thyroid Function
337
Actions of Thyroid Hormones
338
Metabolic Actions
339
Permissive Actions
339
Growth and Development
339
Additional Clinical Examples
340
Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism
340
SECTION D
The Endocrine Response to Stress
Physiological Functions of Cortisol
342
Functions of Cortisol in Stress
342
Other Hormones Released During Stress
343
Psychological Stress and Disease
344
Additional Clinical Examples
344
Adrenal Insuffi
ciency and Cushing’s Syndrome
344
SECTION E
Endocrine Control of Growth
Bone Growth
346
Environmental Factors Infl uencing Growth
347
Hormonal Infl uences on Growth
347
Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factors
347
Thyroid Hormones
349
Insulin 349
Sex Hormones
349
Cortisol 350
Additional Clinical Examples
350
Acromegaly and Gigantism
350
SECTION F
Endocrine Control of Ca
2+
Homeostasis
Effector Sites for Calcium Homeostasis
352
Bone 352
Kidneys 353
Gastrointestinal Tract
353
Hormonal Controls
353
Parathyroid Hormone
353
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D
354
Calcitonin 355
Metabolic Bone Diseases
355
Additional Clinical Examples
355
Hyper- and Hypocalcemia
355
TEST QUESTIONS
357
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
358
ANSWERS TO PHYSIOLOGICAL INQUIRIES
358
CHAPTER
12
Cardiovascular Physiology
359
SECTION A
Overall Design of the
Circulatory System
System Overview
360
Pressure, Flow, and Resistance
362
SECTION B
The Heart
Anatomy 365
Cardiac Muscle
366
Heartbeat Coordination
367
Sequence of Excitation
368
Cardiac Action Potentials and Excitation of the SA Node
369
The Electrocardiogram
371
Excitation-Contraction Coupling
371
Refractory Period of the Heart
373
Mechanical Events of the Cardiac Cycle
373
Mid-Diastole to Late Diastole
375
Systole 375
Early Diastole
377
Pulmonary Circulation Pressures
377
Heart Sounds
377
The Cardiac Output
378
Control of Heart Rate
378
Control of Stroke Volume
379
Measurement of Cardiac Function
382
Additional Clinical Examples
382
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
382
SECTION C
The Vascular System
Arteries 384
Arterial Blood Pressure
385
Measurement of Systemic Arterial Pressure
387
Arterioles 388
Local Controls
389
Extrinsic Controls
390
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