xi
Table of Contents
Altered States of Consciousness
242
Schizophrenia 242
The Mood Disorders: Depressions and Bipolar Disorders
243
Psychoactive Substances, Dependence, and Tolerance
244
Learning and Memory
245
Memory 245
The Neural Basis of Learning and Memory
246
Cerebral Dominance and Language
247
Conclusion 249
Additional Clinical Examples
249
Limbic System Dysfunction
249
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
250
Head Trauma and Conscious State
250
TEST QUESTIONS
252
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
253
ANSWERS TO PHYSIOLOGICAL INQUIRIES
253
CHAPTER
9
Muscle 254
SECTION A
Skeletal Muscle
Structure 255
Molecular Mechanisms of Skeletal Muscle
Contraction 258
Sliding-Filament Mechanism
258
Roles of Troponin, Tropomyosin, and Calcium in Contraction
261
Excitation-Contraction Coupling
261
Membrane Excitation: The Neuromuscular Junction
264
Mechanics of Single-Fiber Contraction
266
Twitch Contractions
268
Load-Velocity Relation
269
Frequency-Tension Relation
270
Length-Tension Relation
270
Skeletal Muscle Energy Metabolism
272
Muscle Fatigue
273
Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
274
Whole-Muscle Contraction
274
Control of Muscle Tension
275
Control of Shortening Velocity
277
Muscle Adaptation to Exercise
277
Lever Action of Muscles and Bones
278
Additional Clinical Examples
280
Muscle Cramps
280
Hypocalcemic Tetany
280
Muscular Dystrophy
280
Myasthenia Gravis
280
SECTION B
Smooth and
Cardiac Muscle
Structure of Smooth Muscle
284
Smooth Muscle Contraction and Its Control
285
Cross-Bridge Activation
285
Sources of Cytosolic Calcium
286
Membrane Activation
287
Types of Smooth Muscle
289
Cardiac Muscle
290
Cellular Structure of Cardiac Muscle
290
Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Cardiac Muscle
290
TEST QUESTIONS
293
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
294
ANSWERS TO PHYSIOLOGICAL INQUIRIES
295
CHAPTER
10
Control of Body Movement
296
Motor Control Hierarchy
297
Voluntary and Involuntary Actions
299
Local Control of Motor Neurons
299
Interneurons 299
Local Afferent Input
300
The Brain Motor Centers and the Descending
Pathways They Control
304
Cerebral Cortex
304
Subcortical and Brainstem Nuclei
305
Cerebellum 307
Descending Pathways
308
Muscle Tone
309
Abnormal Muscle Tone
309
Maintenance of Upright Posture and Balance
310
Walking 310
Additional Clinical Examples
311
Tetanus 311
TEST QUESTIONS
313
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
314
ANSWERS TO PHYSIOLOGICAL INQUIRIES
314
CHAPTER
11
The Endocrine System
315
SECTION A
Principles of Hormonal
Control Systems
Hormone Structures and Synthesis
317
Amine Hormones
317
Peptide and Protein Hormones
319
Steroid Hormones
319
Hormone Transport in the Blood
323
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