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Table of Contents
SECTION C
Synapses
Functional Anatomy of Synapses
159
Mechanisms of Neurotransmitter Release
160
Activation of the Postsynaptic Cell
161
Excitatory Chemical Synapses
161
Inhibitory Chemical Synapses
162
Synaptic Integration
162
Synaptic Strength
164
Modifi
cation of Synaptic Transmission by Drugs and Disease
165
Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators
166
Acetylcholine 166
Biogenic Amines
167
Amino Acid Neurotransmitters
169
Neuropeptides 170
Miscellaneous 171
Neuroeffector Communication
171
Additional Clinical Examples
171
Ethanol: A Pharmacological Hand Grenade
171
SECTION D
Structure of the Nervous System
Central Nervous System: Brain
174
Forebrain 174
Cerebellum 176
Brainstem 177
Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord
177
Peripheral Nervous System
177
Autonomic Nervous System
180
Blood Supply, Blood-Brain Barrier,
and Cerebrospinal Fluid
185
Additional Clinical Examples
186
Nicotine 186
TEST QUESTIONS
189
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
190
ANSWERS TO PHYSIOLOGICAL INQUIRIES
190
CHAPTER
7
Sensory Physiology
191
SECTION A
General Principles
Sensory Receptors
192
The Receptor Potential
193
Primary Sensory Coding
194
Stimulus Type
194
Stimulus Intensity
195
Stimulus Location
195
Stimulus Duration
198
Central Control of Afferent Information
198
Neural Pathways in Sensory Systems
198
Ascending Pathways
199
Association Cortex and Perceptual Processing
200
Factors That Affect Perception
201
SECTION B
Specifi
c Sensory Systems
Somatic Sensation
203
Touch and Pressure
203
Sense of Posture and Movement
203
Temperature 204
Pain 204
Neural Pathways of the Somatosensory System
206
Vision 208
Light 208
Overview of Eye Anatomy
209
The Optics of Vision
209
Photoreceptor Cells and Phototransduction
212
Neural Pathways of Vision
214
Color Vision
215
Eye Movement
216
Hearing 217
Sound 217
Sound Transmission in the Ear
218
Hair Cells of the Organ of Corti
221
Neural Pathways in Hearing
222
Vestibular System
222
The Semicircular Canals
222
The Utricle and Saccule
223
Vestibular Information and Pathways
223
Chemical Senses
224
Taste 224
Smell 226
Additional Clinical Examples
227
Hearing and Balance: Losing Both at Once
227
Color Blindness
227
TEST QUESTIONS
230
QUANTITATIVE AND THOUGHT QUESTIONS
231
ANSWERS TO PHYSIOLOGICAL INQUIRIES
231
CHAPTER
8
Consciousness, the Brain,
and Behavior
232
States of Consciousness
233
Electroencephalogram 233
The Waking State
234
Sleep 234
Neural Substrates of States of Consciousness
235
Coma and Brain Death
237
Conscious Experiences
238
Selective Attention
238
Neural Mechanisms of Conscious Experiences
239
Motivation and Emotion
240
Motivation 240
Emotion 241
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